NASM Chapter 12 Speed, Agility and Quickness Training

Concepts in Speed, Agility and Quickness Training

  • Quickness
    The ability to react and change body position with maximal rate of force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities.
  • Speed
    The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible.
  • Agility
    The ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly while maintaining proper posture.
  • The Programming component of Speed, Agility, Quickness (SAQ) training is similar to plyometric (Reactive) training in which he individual reacts to the ground surface in such a way to develop lager than normal ground forces that can be used to project the body with greater velocity or speed of movement.
  • Agility refers to short bursts of movement that involve a change in direction, cadence, or speed.
  • Quickness refers to the ability to react to stimulus and appropriately change the motion of the body.
  • This program enhances client’s ability to accelerate, decelerate, and dynamically stabilize their entire body during higher-velocity acceleration and deceleration movements.
  • SAQ training may further help the nervous system to respond or react more efficiently to demands placed on it.


  • Stride Length
    The distance covered with each stride.
  • Stride Rate
    The number of strides taken in a given amount of time (or distance).

Proper Sprint Mechanics

  • Proper running mechanics allows the client to maximize force generation through biomechanical efficiency, allowing maximal movement velocity to be achieved in the shortest time possible.
  • Backside Mechanics
    Proper alignment of the rear leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle plantar flexion, knee extension, hip extension, and neutral pelvis.
  • Frontside Mechanics
    Proper alignment of the lead leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, and neutral pelvis.



  • Agility – Ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly while maintaining proper posture. Requires high levels of neuromuscular efficiency to be able to maintain one’s center of gravity over base of support while changing directions at various speeds.
  • Proper agility training can help prevent injury by enhancing body’s ability to effectively control eccentric forces in all planes of motion as well as by improving structural integrity of connective tissue.



  • Quickness – The ability to react and change body composition with maximal rate of force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities.
  • Quickness Involves ability to assess visual, auditory, or kinesthetic stimuli and to provide the appropriate physical response as fast as possible(such as hitting a baseball or swerving to avoid car accident).

Speed, Agility, and Quickness for Nonathletic Populations

  • Although Speed, agility and quickness training is a widely used and accepted way to improve sports performance in athletes, components of SAQ program also significantly improve physical health profile of apparently healthy sedentary adults and those with medical or health limitations.
  • The increased neuromuscular, biomechanical, and physiological demand for such training can aid in weight loss, coordination, movement proficiency, and injury prevention when applied safely and effectively as seen in OPT model.
  • Unlike the more common steady-state, moderate-intensity modalities (such as treadmill walking) often prescribed for nonathletic populations, SAQ drills require greater integration of a variet of the body’s biologic systems.
  • It is essential that personal trainers perform extensive client evaluations examining exercise experience, movement quality, health history and injury profile before beginning an SAQ training program.

SAQ Training Programs for Youth

  • Children are constantly growing, developing, and maturing until early adulthood. Children are programmed to develop progressively higher neuromuscular capabilities in line with their physical and mental maturation.
  • The environment must challenge children’s biologic systems; must learn through external measures how to adapt and apply appropriate movement patterns.
  • SAQ training for the youth is an effective way of providing a variety of exposures to various physiologic, neuromuscular, and biomechanical demands, resulting in the further development of physical ability.
  • SAQ programs decrease likelihood of athletic injury, increase likelihood of exercise participation later in life, and improve physical fitness.
  • Example games for youth training are:
    1.Red light green light drills
    2.follow the snake.

SAQ Training for Weight Loss

  • Interval training is highly effective in improving variety of health-related factors.
  • High intensity, short duration programs have been found to match or surpass results for functional capacity, muscular power, fat and weight loss, and other metabolic adaptations when compared with moderate-intensity, long-duration exercise protocols.
  • High intensity, short bouts of SAQ drills make them valid choice for interval training modalities with appropriate nonathletic populations.
  • When designing SAQ programs for weight loss, primary focus is to keep heart rate appropriately elevated to increase fat oxidation and caloric expenditure.- This can be done by creating small circuit SAQ exercise programs.
  • Example exercises include: Jump rope/cone shuffle circuit.

SAQ Training for Seniors

  • Primary function of SAQ for seniors is to prevent age-related decreases in bone density, coordinative ability, and muscular power.
  • SAQ training aids in prevention of injury and increase in quality of life.
  • Movement confidence and proficiency are essential in senior populations to aid in prevention of falls and maintain activities of daily life.
  • Sarcopenia, age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, slowing sarcopenia are interventions requiring speed of movement and rate of force production.


NASM Chapter 11 Plyometric (Reactive) Training Concepts

Principles of Plyometric Training

  • Plyometric training is also known as jump or reactive training, it is a form of exercise that uses explosive movements such as bounding, hopping, and jumping to develop muscular power.
  • Plyometric (Reactive) Training
    Exercises that generate quick, powerful movements involving an explosive concentric muscle contraction preceded by an eccentric muscle action.
  • Clients need to pass the core and balance portions of training before even considering this phase
  • Rate of Force Production
    Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time. (This is one of the major benefits of Plyometric training)
  • Plyometric training uses a characteristic of muscle known as the stretch-shortening cycle  of the Integrated Performance Paradigm – essent1
  • Integrated Performance Paradigm
    To move with efficiency, forces must be dampened (eccentrically),stabilized (isometrically), and then accelerated (concentrically).


3 Phases of Plyometric Exercise

  • The 3 phases include– Eccentric (Loading phase). Amortization (Transition Phase) and the Concentric (Unloading phase)
  • Eccentric Muscle Action
    An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening.
  • Eccentric Phase
    First stage of plyometric movement, classified as eccentric phase, but also called deceleration, loading, yielding, counter movement, or cocking phase. Phase increases muscle spindle activity by prestretching the muscle before activation. Potential energy stored in the elastic components of the muscle during this loading phase much like stretching a rubber band.
  • Amortization Phase
    1. This phase involves Dynamic stabilization and is time between end of eccentric muscle action (loading) and initiation of concentric contraction (unloading).
    2. Prolonged amortization phase results in less than optimal neuromuscular efficiency from a loss of elastic potential energy. (Think of preparing to jump- holding the bending of the knees prior to jumping is the amortization phase)
    3. A Rapid switch from eccentric loading to concentric contraction leads to a more powerful response.
  • Concentric phase
    1.This is the last phase of the paradigm before another starts- the concentric phase occurs immediately after amortization phase and involves a concentric contraction.
    2. This is synonymous with releasing a rubber band after it was stretched

Importance of Plyometric Training

  • Plyometric exercises enhance excitability, sensitivity, and re-activity of neuromuscular system and increase the rate of force production(power), motor unit recruitment, firing frequency(rate coding) and motor unit synchronization.
  • All movement patterns that occur during functional activities involve a series of repetitive stretch-shortening cycles(eccentric and concentric contractions).
  • Stretch-shortening cycles require neuromuscular system to react quickly and efficiently after an eccentric muscle action to produce a concentric contraction and impart necessary force(or acceleration) in the appropriate direction.
  • By training the client with functional movements such as “Cutting or Change-of-direction)- Plyometric training prepares client for functional demands of specific activity.
  • The Speed of muscular exertion is limited by neuromuscular coordination- This means that the body will only move within a range of speed that the nervous system has been programmed to allow.
  • Optimal reactive performance of any activity depends on the speed at which muscular forces can be generated – Plyometric training assists with increasing these speeds


  • The Nervous system recruits muscles only at speeds at which it has been trained to do so. If it is not trained to recruit muscles quickly, when met with a demand for fast reaction, the nervous system will not be able to respond properly.
  • This reiterates the importance of using a progressive systematic approach when designing the plyometric component of your client’s training regimen.

Designing a Plyometric Training Program

  • A plyometric program is a vital component of any integrated training program.
  • This program must be systematic and progressive.
  • Plyometric training should only be performed by individuals wearing supportive shoes, and on a proper training surface such as a grass field, basketball court, or tartan track



Levels of Plyometric Training

  • There are 3 levels of training within the NASM’s OPT model-
    1. Stabilization
    2. Strength
    3. Power

Plyometric Stabilization Exercises

  • In plyometric-stabilization training, exercises involve little joint motion. They are designed to establish optimal landing mechanics, postural alignment, and reactive neuromuscular efficiency (Coordination during dynamic movement).
  • When an individual lands during these exercises, he or she should hold the landing position (Or stabilize) for 3-5 seconds.
  • During this time individuals should make any adjustments necessary to correct faulty postures before repeating the exercise
  • Exercises- Squat jump with stabilization, box jump-up with stabilization, box jump-down with stabilization, multiplanar jump with stabilization

Example Plyometric Exercises




Plyometric Strength Exercises

  • Exercises involve more dynamic eccentric and concentric movement through a full range of motion.
  • The Specificity, Speed, and Neural demand may also be progressed at this level.
  • Exercises are intended to improve dynamic joint stabilization, eccentric strength, rate of force production, and neuromuscular efficiency of the entire human movement system.
  • Training is performed in repetitive fashion(spending relatively short time on the ground before repeating the drill).
  • Exercises: Squat jump, tuck jump, butt kick, power step-up

Plyometric Power Exercises

  • Exercises involve entire muscle action spectrum and contraction-velocity spectrum used during integrated, functional movements.
  • This approach to training is designed to further improve the rate of force production, eccentric strength, reactive strength, reactive joint stabilization, dynamic neuromuscular efficiency, and optimal force production.
  • Exercises are performed as fast and explosively as possible.
  • Exercises: Ice-skaters, single-leg power step-up, proprioceptive plyometrics.

NASM-Table-11.1 (1)




NASM Chapter 10 Balance Training Concepts

Core concepts of balance

  • Balance
    1. The ability to sustain or return the body’s center of mass or line of gravity over its base of support.
    2. When the body is in equilibrium and stationary, meaning no linear orangular movement.
  • Dynamic Balance
    The ability to move and change directions under various conditions without falling.
  • Balance is dependent on both internal and external factors to maintain the body’s center of gravity over its base of support

Scientific Rationale for Balance Training

  • Research shows that specific kinetic chain imbalances(such as altered length-tension relationships, force-couple relationships, and arthrokinematics) can lead to altered balance and neuromuscular inefficiency.
  • Prime movers may be slow to activate, whereas synergists and stabilizers substitute and become overactive (Synergistic Dominance)
  • Joint dysfunction creates muscle inhibition. Leads to joint injury, swelling, interruption of sensory input from articular, ligamentous, and muscular mechanoreceptors to the central nervous system, results in clinically evident disturbance in proprioception.
  • NASM-Figure-10.2
  • It has been demonstrated that sensory feedback to the CNS is altered after ankle sprains, ligamentous injuries to the knee, and LBP.

Importance of Properly Training the Balance Mechanism

  • Balance training should stress individual’s limit of stability(or balance threshold). Limit of stability is distance outside of the base of support that he or she can move into without losing control of his or her center of gravity.
  • This threshold must be stressed in multiplanar, proprioceptively enriched(unstable yet controlled) environment, using functional movement patterns to improve dynamic balance and neuromuscular efficiency.
  • The design and implementation of balance exercises into a training program is critical for developing, improving, and restoring the synergy and synchronicity of muscle firing paterns required for dynamic balance and optimal neuromuscular efficiency.


  • Individuals with altered neuromuscular control likely have specific kinetic chain imbalances
  • Joint dysfunction creates muscle inhibition, which alters balance and leads to tissue overload and injury. The majority of fitness clients have decreased neuromuscular efficiency and problems with balance and thus can benefit from balance training programs
  • Training should progress to include unstable environments in which an individual can still safely control movements.

Benefits of Balance Training

  • Balance training programs are frequently used to help prevent lower extremity injuries by improving balance abilities in individuals

Balance training Effects on Injuries

  • Research shows performing exercises that demand balance can reduce rate of ankle sprains and other lower extremity injuries.
  • Balance training is often integrated into ACL injury prevention programs- which have shown promise to reduce the rate of annual ACL injuries.

Balance Training Effects on Balance Ability

  • Balance training programs that are performed for at least 10 minutes a day, 3 times per week for the duration of 4 weeks, appear to improve both static and dynamic balance ability.
  • NASM-Table-10.1

Level of Balance Training

  • Three levels of training – stabilization, strength, and power. Proper balance training program follows same systematic progression.
  • Surfaces change in difficulty as individual moves from stable surface(floor) to unstable surfaces(half foam roll, foam pad, balance disc). Eyes open is easier than eyes closed or moving head around to look at various objects or performing cognitive task(s) simultaneously.
  • Moving the contralateral limb, trunk, or arms also makes a balance exercise more challenging, whereas standing on two legs versus a single leg simplifies the exercies
  • Caution should be used to change one variable at a time.

Balance Stabilization Exercises

  • These exercises involve little joint motion; instead they are designed to improve reflexive (automatic) joint stabilization contractions to increase joint stability
  • Sample exercises:
    1.single-leg balance,
    2.single-leg balance reach,
    3.single-leg hip internal and external rotation,
    4.single-leg lift and chop,
    5.single-leg throw and catch

Balance Strength Exercises

  • Involve dynamic eccentric and concentric movement of balance leg, through full range of motion.
  • Sample exercises:
    single-leg squat,
    single-leg squat touchdown,
    single-leg romanian deadlift,
    multiplanar step-up to balance,
    multiplanar lunge to balance

Balance Power Exercises

  • Designed to develop proper deceleration ability to move body from dynamic state to a controlled stationary position, as well as high levels of eccentric strength, dynamic neuromuscular efficiency,and reactive joint stabilization.
  • Exercises include:
    multiplanar hop with stabilization,
    multiplanar sing-leg box hop-up with stabilization,
    multiplanar single-leg box hop-down with stabilization.

NASM Chapter 9 Core Training Concepts

  • The Core
    1. The center of the body and the beginning point for movement.
    2. The structures that make up the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC), including the lumbar spine, the pelvic girdle, abdomen, and the hip joint.
    3. The Core is where the body’s center of gravity (COG) is located and where all movement originates.
  • •Core Musculature has been divided into- Local and global stabilization systems.
  • Local stabilization system 
    1. Local core stabilizers are muscles that attach directly to the vertebrae.
    2. primarily consist of type 1 (slow twitch muscles)
    3. Responsible for intervertebral and intersegmental stability and work limit to excessive compressive, shear, and rotational forces between spinal segment.
    4. Provide support from vertebra to vertebra
    5. Made up of the muscles – Transverse abdominis, internal obliques, Multifidus, Pelvic Floor musculature.
    6. These muscles contribute to segmental spinal stability by increasing intra-abdominal pressure and generating tension in the thoracolumbar fascia (connective tissue of the lower back.)
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  • Global Stabilization System –
    1.Attach from the pelvis to the spine
    2. These muscles act as transfer loads between the upper and lower extremity
    3. Provide stabilization and eccentric control of the core during functional movements.
    4. The muscles that make up the global stabilization system – Quadratus lumborum, psoas major, external obliques, portions of the internal oblique, rectus abdominis. gluteus medius, and adductor complex
  • Movement System –
    1. Includes muscles that attach the spine and/or pelvis to the extremities.
    2. Primarily responsible for concentric force and Eccentric deceleration
    3.Primary muscles –  Latissimus dorsi, hip flexors, hamstring complex, and quadriceps (Think mostly lower portions of the body minus the lats)
    4.Collectively provides dynamic stabilization and neuromuscular control of the entire core (LPHC)
  • •The systems from the inside out appear as. (Local ⇒ Global ⇒ Movement)
    This means training the movement system muscles before training the muscles of the global and local stabilization systems would not make sense from both a structural and biomechanical standpoint.
  • •NOTE: If the movement system musculature of the core is strong and the local stabilization is weak, the kinetic chain senses imbalance and forces are not transferred or used properly- leading to compensation, synergistic dominance, and inefficient movements.
  • •80% Of U.S. adults have Lower back pain (LBP)
    Research has found that those with LBP have decreased activation of certain muscles or groups, including: transverse abdominis, internal obliques, pelvic floor muscles, multifidus, diaphragm, and deep erector spinae.  Those with chronic LBP tend to have weaker back extensor muscles and decreased muscular endurance.
  • •Core Stabilization exercises restore the size, activation and endurance of the multifidus (Deep spine muscle) in individuals with LBP
  • oi_multifidus
  • Drawing-In Maneuver
    1. Activation of the transverse abdominis, multifidus, pelvic floor muscles, and diaphragm to provide core stabilization.
    2. A maneuver used to recruit the local core stabilizers by drawing the navel in toward the spine.
  • Bracing
    1. Occurs when you have contracted both the abdominal, lower back, and buttock muscles at the same time.
    2. Referred to as the co-contraction of the global muscles, such as the rectus abdominis, external obliques, and the quadratus lumborum. 
    3. AKA bearing down or tightening of the global muscles. 
  • •NOTE: A comprehensive core training program should be systematic, progressive, functional, and emphasize the entire muscle action spectrum focusing on force production (Concentric), force reduction (Eccentric) and dynamic stabilization (Isometric).
  • •There are 3 levels of core training- Stabilization, Strength, And power.
  • NASM-Table-9.3
  • Core-Stabilization Training (Phase 1)
    1.In this phase most exercise involve little motion through the spine and pelvis.
    2.These exercises are designed to improve neuromuscular efficiency and intervertbral stability, focusing on drawing-in and then bracing during exercises.
    3. The client should spend 4 weeks at this level 
    4. Sample exercises for this phase- Marching, Floor bridge, Floor Prone Cobra, Prone Iso-Ab
  • Core Strength (Phases 2, 3, and 4)
    1.  This phase involves more dynamic eccentric and concentric movements of the spine throughout full range of motion while clients perform the activation techniques learned in core-stabilization training (Drawing in and Bracing) 
    2. Specificity, speed, and neural demands are progressed at this level.
    3. 4 weeks is the average amount of time spent at this level.  
    4. These exercises are designed to improve dynamic stabilization, concentric and eccentric strength, as well as neuromusclar efficiency of the entire kinetic chain
    5. Sample exercises include- Ball crunch, Back extensions, Reverse crunch, Cable rotations
  • Core Power (Phase 5)
    1.Designed to improve rate of force production of core musculature. Prepare an individual to dynamically stabilize and generate force at more functionally applicable speeds.
    2. Sample exercises include- Rotation chest pass, medicine ball pullover throw, front MB oblique throw, soccer throw. (Note all medicine ball exercises should be chosen at 5%-10% of Body weight BW)


NASM Chapter 8 Cardiorespiratory Fitness Training

Cardiorespiratory Fitness
The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.

Cardiorespiratory Training
Any physical activity that involves and places stress on the cardiorespiratory system.

Integrated Cardiorespiratory Training
Cardiorespiratory training programs that systematically progress clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical, and performance adaptations by placing stress on the cardiorespiratory system.

•NOTE: One of the most common errors made by personal trainers in understand the necessary Rate of Progression in context of a client’s cardiorespiratory training

•An individuals Cardiorespiratory system is one of the strongest predictor of morbidity and mortality- Conversely, an improvement in Cardiorespiratory fitnes is related to a reduction in premature death from all causes

•Each Exercise session should include the following phases:
1. Warm-up Phase
2. Conditioning Phase
3. Cool-down Phase

General Warm-Up
1. Consists of movements that do not necessarily have any movement specificity to the actual activity to be performed.
2. Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow.

Specific Warm-Up
Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow. (Example: Body qeight squat or push-ups before weight training)

•NASM recommends that the Cardiorespiratory portion of a warm-up period last 5 – 10 minutes and consists of Whole body, Dynamic cardiovascular or muscular movements (Well-below the anticipated training intensity threshold for conditioning)

•New clients who live a sedentary lifestyle may require 1/2 their entire workout time dedicated to warming up, at least initially




•NASM recommends for individuals who possess MSK imbalances to first perform SMR


•At rest only 15-20% of circulating blood reaches skeletal muscle, but during intense vigorous exercise it increases up to as much as 80 to 85% of cardiac output.

•During prolonged exercise, Plasma volume can decrease by as much as 10 to 20%. Cool-down period helps gradually restore physiological responses to exercise close to baseline levels.

•Flexibility training should be included in the Cool-down phase


•NOTE: When used in warm-up, static stretching should only be used on areas that the assessments have determined tight or overactive- Each stretch should be held for 20-30 seconds.

•Trainers must know how to use the FITTE


The number of training sessions in a given time frame- for improved fitness levels frequency is 3 to 5 days per week at higher intensity.

The level of demand that a given activity places on the body.

The length of time an individual is engaged in a given activity. -Adults should accumulate 2 hrs and 30 mins of moderate intensity aerobic activity or 1 hr 15 mins of intense aerobic activity.

The type or mode of physical activity that an individual is engaged in. – For exercise to be considered aerobic it must be rhythmic in nature, use large muscle groups, and be continuous in nature.

The amount of pleasure derived from performing a physical activity.


Oxygen Uptake Reserve (VO2R)
The difference between resting and maximal or peak oxygen consumption.

•NOTE: Moderate exercise typically represents an intensity range of less than 60% VO2R


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Methods for Prescribing Exercise Intensity
1. Peak VO2 Method – VO2max is the maximal amount of oxygen that an individual can use during intense exercise.(This method is considered the gold standard, however- it is impractical for personal trainers because it requires sophisticated equipment.

2. VO2 Reserve Method (VO2R) – Preferred method by the American College of Sports Medicine.
The Formula: = VO2R = [(VO2max – VO2rest) X intensity desired] + VO2rest

3. Peak Maximal Heart Rate (MHR) Method – The most common formula = 220-Age. Never use this method to design a cardiorespiratory fitness program. Estimating heart rates from mathematical formulas can produce results ± 10 to 12 BPM off the actual maximal heart rate

4. HR Reserve(HRR) Method AKA Karvonen method – Establishing training intensity based on difference between predicted maximal heart rate and resting heart rate. Most common and universally accepted method of establishing exercise training intensity.
The Formula: = THR = [(HRmax – HRrest) x desired intensity] + HR rest

•NOTE: VO2rest = One MET- This means, one MET = 3.5 ML O2 per KG per Min, or equivalent of average resting metabolic rate for adults.

•NOTE: METS and physical activity act linearly – running that requires 7 METS means the individual is exerting 7X the Resting energy rate (METS are measured by the Peak Metabolic Equivalent (MET) method)

THR = Target Heart Rate

Ventilatory Threshold
The point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominately aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production.


Perceived exertion method
A client’s subjective rating on how they perceive their exertion levels during and before physical exercise- Measured using the BORG scale.


Cardiorespiratory training (Stages 1, 2, and 3.)
Stage 1– Designed to help improve cardiorespiratory fitness levels in apparently healthy sedentary clients using THR of 65 to 75% of HRmax or approximately 12-13 on the rating of perceived exertion (Scale zone). In stage 1 clients should gradually work up to 30 – 60 minutes of continuous exercise in zone 1.

Stage 2– Designed for clients with low to moderate cardiorespiratory fitness levels whoa re ready to begin training at higher intensity levels. Focus on increasing workload(speed, incline, level)  in a way that will help clients alter heart rate in and out of zone 1 and 2.
Stage 2 helps increase cardiorespiratory capacity needed for workout styles in strength level of OPT model. Interval training, intensities varies throughout workout.
1. Start by warming up in zone one for 5 to 10 minutes.
2. Move into 1-minute interval in zone two. Gradually increase workload to raise heart rate up to zone two within that minute. Once heart rate reaches zone 2 of maximal heart rate, maintain it for rest of that minute. (It may take 45 seconds to reach that HR which means the client will only be at the top end for 15 seconds before reducing work load.
3. After 1 minute interval return to zone one for 3 mins.
4. Repeat this, most important part of interval is to recover back to zone one between intervals.
Stage 2 it is important to alternate days of the week with stage 1 training. Alternating sessions every workout.

Stage 3 For advanced client who has moderately high cardiorespiratory fitness level base and will use heart rate zones one, two, and three. The major focus of this stage is increasing workload of (Speed, incline, level)
1. Warm up in zone one for up to 10 minutes.
2. Increase workload every 60 seconds until reaching zone three. Require slow climb through zone two for at least two minutes.
3. After pushing for another minute in zone three, decrease workload. One minute break is important to help gauge improvement.
4. Drop client’s workload down to the level he or she was just working in, before starting zone 3 interval.
5. As improvements are made during several weeks of training, heart rate will drop more quickly. Faster HR drops, stronger heart is getting.
6. If client is not able to drop appropriate heart rate during 1-minute break, assume he or she is tired and about to overtrain. Solution is stay in zone one or two for rest of workout.
7. If heart rate does drop to a normal rate, then overload the body again and go to next zone, zone three, for 1 minute.
8. After this minute go back to zone one for 5-10 minutes and repeat if desired.
NOTE: it is vital to rotate all three stages, low stage(stage 1), medium(stage II), and high-intensity(stage III) to help minimize risk of overtraining.

Excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training, resulting in fatigue (which is also caused by a lack of proper rest and recovery).

Circuit Training System
This consists of a series of exercises that an individual performs one after another with minimal rest.



NASM Chapter 7 Flexibility Training Concepts

• In designing a warm-up program, the components of Flexibility and Cardiorespiratory training need should be reviewed

The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows the full range of motion of a joint. Describes as the ability to move a joint through its complete ROM

Capability to be elongated or stretched.

Range of Motion (AKA ROM)
Refers to the range that the body or bodily segments move during an exercise.

•Remember! Neuromuscular Efficiency
1. The ability of the neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion.
2. The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.

•To allow for proper Neuromuscular Efficiency, individuals must have proper flexibility in all three planes

•Remember! Kinetic Chain
The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.


Postural Distortion Patterns
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances. Represented by lack of structural integrity- resulting from decreased functioning of one (or more) components of the HMS

• Muscle imbalnce -> Poor Posture -> Improper Movement -> Injury

•Poor Flexibility may lead to the development of Relative Flexibility

Relative Flexibility
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns.

Muscle Imbalance
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint.- Could be overactive (forcing Compensation) or underactive (Allowing for compensation to occur)


Altered Reciprocal Inhibition
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist. This could mean when the client flexes the elbow during a bicep curl the triceps brachii does not relax like it should- Can lead to synergistic dominance

Synergistic Dominance
1. When synergists take over function for a weak or inhibited prime mover.
2. The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover.
3. This may lead to Arthokinetic Dysfunction

Arthrokinetic Dysfunction
1. A biomechanical and neuromuscular dysfunction in which forces at the joint are altered, resulting in abnormal joint movement and proprioception.
2. Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint
3. With time, the stress associated with Arthrokinetic Dysfunction can lead to pain, which can further alter muscle recruitment and joint mechanics

•Remember! Muscle Spindles
Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.

•Remember! Golgi Tendon Organs
1.Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.
2.Located within the Musculotendinous junction (point where the muscle and the tendon meet.
3.The GTO causes a muscle to relax when under Great amounts of stress, which could result in injury. (This is termed “Autogenic Inhibition”)

Autogenic Inhibition
The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.

•NOTE: Autogenic Inhibition is one of the main principles use in Flexibility training, particularly with static stretching in which one holds a stretch for a prolonged period. Holding a stretch creates tension in the muscle. This tension stimulates the GTO, which overrides muscle spindle activity in the muscle being stretched, causing relaxation in the overactive muscle and allowing for optimal lengthening of the tissue in general, stretches should be held long enough for the GTO to override the signal from the muscle spindle (Approx 30 seconds)

•Muscular imbalances are highly prevalent in today’s society and are oftentimes caused by Pattern Overload

Pattern Overload
1. Repetitive physical activity that moves through the same patterns of motion, placing the same stresses on the body over time.
2. Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.

Cumulative Injury Cycle
A cycle whereby an injury will induce inflammation, muscle spasm, adhesions, altered neuromuscular control, and muscle imbalances.

•Note: The adhesions that form are a weak, inelastic matrix (Inability to stretch) that decreases normal elasticity of the soft tissue, resulting in altered length-tension relationships (Leading to altered reciprocal inhibition)
If these adhesions are left untreated they can begin to form permanent structural change in the soft tissue that is evident by Davis’s law.


Davis’s Law
1.States that soft tissue models along the line of stress.
2. “Ligaments, or any soft tissue, when put under even a moderate degree of tension, if that tension is unremitting, will elongate by the addition of new material; on the contrary, when ligaments, or rather soft tissues, remain uninterruptedly in a loose or lax state, they will gradually shorten, as the effete material is removed, until they come to maintain the same relation to the bony structures with which they are united that they did before their shortening. Nature never wastes her time and material in maintaining a muscle or ligament at its original length when the distance between their points of origin and insertion is for any considerable time, without interruption, shortened.”

•There are 3 phases of Flexibility training within the OPT model: Corrective, Active, and Functional

Corrective Flexibility
1.Designed to improve ROM, muscle imbalances and altered arthrokinematics
2.Includes: Self-Myofascial  Release (Foam Roll) techniques and static stretching
2. Corrective Flexibility is appropriate at the stabilization level (phase 1) of the OPT model

Self-Myofascial Release
Another form of flexibility that focuses on the fascial system in the body. (Utilizes foam rollers)

Static Stretching
The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds.

Active Flexibility
1.The ability of agonists and synergists to move a limb through the full range of motion while their functional antagonist is being stretched.
2. Uses SMR and Active Isolated Stretching techniques
3. This would be appropriate at the strength level (phases 2, 3, and 4,) of the OPT model

Active-Isolated Stretch
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion.

Functional Flexibility
1.Integrated, multiplanar, soft tissue extensibility with optimum neuromuscular control through the full range of motion.
2.Uses SMR and Dynamic Stretching.
3. If clients compensate when performing dynamic stretches during training, they need to be regressed to active or corrective flexibility
4. This form would be appropriate at the power level(Phase 5) of the OPT model

Dynamic Range of Motion
The combination of flexibility and the nervous system’s ability to control this range of motion efficiently.

Dynamic Stretching
1. Uses the force production of a muscle and the body’s momentum to take a joint through the full available range of motion.
2. The active extension of a muscle, using force production and momentum, to move the joint through the full available range of motion.

•NOTES: SMR is used to correct existing muscle imbalances, reduce trigger points(Knots within Muscle) and inhibit overactive musculature. Can be used before AND after exercise

•NOTE: Static Stretching is used to correct existing muscle imbalances and lengthen overactive (Tight) musculature can be used before and after exercise.

•Remember! Dynamic or Functional stretching should only be used once clients have demonstrated adequate control over motions- this prevent injury

NASM-Table-7.2 (1)


Self Myofascial Release (SMR)
1. By applying a gentle force to an adhesion (knot) the elastic muscle fibers are altered from the bundled position (Which causes the adhesion)
2. The Gentle pressure will stimulate the GTO and create autogenic inhibition, decreasing muscle spindle excitation and releasing the hypertonicity (Tension)
3. Once a pressure point is found, a minimum of 30 seconds of pressure (Foam roll or other implement) needs to be held on that area.


Static Stretching



Active-Isolated Stretching
1. Good for preactivity as long as no postural distortion patterns are present.
2. Typically 5 – 10 repetitions of each stretch are performed and held for 1 to 2 seconds each.
3. Should be performed AFTER SMR and Static Stretching to determine if any muscles are tight or overactive during the assessment process.


NASM Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Human Movement Science

  • Recall that movement represents the integrated functioning of the 3 main systems within the human body; the nervous system (Central and peripheral), the skeletal (Articular) and the muscular system.
  • Biomechanics
    1. A study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body.
    2. The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
  • Anatomic Locations
    • Superior
      Positioned above a point of reference.
    • Inferior
      Positioned below a point of reference.
    • Proximal
      Positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference.
    • Distal
      Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.
    • Anterior (or Ventral)
      On the front of the body.
    • Posterior (Dorsal)
      On the back of the body.
    • Medial
      Positioned near the middle of the body.
    • Lateral
      Positioned toward the outside of the body.
    • Contralateral
      Positioned on the opposite side of the body.
    • Ipsilateral
      Positioned on the same side of the body.
    • NASM-Figure-5.4
    • Frontal Plane
      An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves. Movements include adduction/abduction

      • Abduction
        A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body.
      • Adduction
        Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body.
    • Sagittal Plane
      An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves. movements include Flexion/Extension

      • Flexion
        A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases.
      • Dorsiflexion
        When applied to the ankle, the ability to bend at the ankle, moving the front of the foot upward.
      • Extension
        A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases.
    • Transverse Plane (AKA Axial Plane)
      An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves. (Think loaf of bread or bread slices from head to feet) Movements in this plane include internal and external rotations AND horizontal adduction/abduction

      • Internal Rotation
        Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body.
      • External Rotation
        Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body.
      • Horizontal abduction
        Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position.
      • Horizontal adduction
        Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position.
    • NASM-table-5.1
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    • 608713-3362-51
    • Scapular Movements 
        • Scapular Depression
          Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula.
        • Scapular Elevation
          Upward (superior) motion of the scapula.
        • Scapular Protraction
          Abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline.
        • Scapular Retraction
          Adduction of scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline.
        • blog-examprep-091313
        • Muscle actions
          • Isotonic
            Force is produced and muscle tension developed. There are two types of isotonic contractions: (1) concentric and (2) eccentric.
          •  Concentric Muscle Action
            When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle. “Lifting phase” during a resistance training exercise
          • Eccentric Muscle Action
            When the contractile force is less than the resistive force. An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening. Usually refers to the muscles return to resting length
          • Isometric Muscle Action
            When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length. (In activities of daily lives and sports these actions are used to dynamically stabilize the boy)
          • Isokinetic Muscle Action
            When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion. (These actions require the use of expensive equipment that measures the amount of force generated by the muscle
        • contractions
        • Force
          An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object.
        • Length-Tension Relationship
          The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length. As it turns out, the natural resting length of our skeletal muscles maximizes the ability of the muscle to contract when stimulated. If the resting length is shorter or longer, contraction is compromised. The effect of resting fiber length on muscular contraction is referred to as the length-tension relationship
        • Force-Velocity Curve
          The force-velocity curve refers to the relationship of he muscle’s ability to produce tension at differing velocities. As the velocity of a concentric muscle action increases, its ability to produce force decreases.
        • Force-Couple
          Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint.
        • Sensorimotor Integration
          1. The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information to anticipate, select, and execute the proper motor response.
          2. The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement. (Made up collectively by: Proper length-tension relationships, Force-Couple Relationships, And Arthrokinematics.

      Common Force-Couples

      Muscles Movement
      internal and external obliques trunk rotation
      deltoid and rotator cuff shoulder abduction
      upper and lower trapezius fibers scapula upward rotation
    • ***Note: Most muscular motions use the lever system, which consists of a rigid ‘Bar” that pivots around a stationary pivot point or (Fulcrum)
    • Fulcrum = Pivot point
      • First-Class Levers
        Fulcrum is in the middle, acts much like a seesaw (Nodding the head is a perfect example of a First-Class Lever.) the top of the spinal column is the fulcrum.
      • Second-Class Levers
        Resistance is in the middle, (Fulcrum and effort on either side) much like a load in a wheelbarrow. The body acts as a second-class lever when one engages in a full-body push-up or calf raise.
      • Third-Class Levers
        The effort is places between the resistance and the fulcrum. The effort always travels a shorter distance and must be greater than the resistance. *Most limbs of the human body are operated as Third-Class Levers. (Example: The forearm: the fulcrum is the elbow- the effort is applied by the biceps muscles and the load is in the hand.
      • NASM-Figure-5.15-fulcrums-and-levers
      • Rotary Motion
        Movement of the bones around axis of the joints.
      • Torque
        1. The ability of any force to cause rotation around an axis.
        2. A force that produces rotation. Common unit of torque is the newton-meter or Nm.
        3. Torque is applied so that human’s can move their joints
      • ** The closer a weight is to the point of rotation (The joint), less torque will be able to be created- This translates to; the closer a weight is to the joint the more easily it will be able to be moved. *Understanding and applying this knowledge is important for trainers as a form of regression during a series of exercises.
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  • Remember: There are 3 types of movements: Eccentrically (decelerate force). Isometrically (To Stabilize). Concentrically (To accelerate force).
  • Motor Behavior
    1. The manner in which the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems interact to produce an observable mechanical response to the incoming sensory information from the internal and external environments.
    2. Motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli.
    3. This is collective study of Motor Control, Motor Learning, and Motor Development.

    • Motor Control
      1. The involved structures and mechanisms that the nervous system uses to gather sensory information and integrate it with previous experiences to produce a motor response.
      2. How the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response.
      3. Study of posture and movements with involved structures and mechanisms used by the Central Nervous System (CNS)  to assimilate and integrate information with previous experiences.
    • Motor Learning
      The integration of motor control processes with practice and experience that lead to relatively permanent changes in the capacity to produced skilled movements.
    • Motor Development
      The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan.
  • Muscle Synergies
    Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement.
  • Proprioception
    Proprioception uses information from the mechanoreceptors (Muscle spindle, Golgi Tendon Organ, and Joint Receptors) to provide information about Body position, Movement, and Sensation.
  • Current research displays that 80% of adult population experience low back pains, and an estimated 80,000-100,000 Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries occur annually- this means that many people are experiencing altered proprioception
  • Image-2
  • Sensorimotor Integration
    1. The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information to anticipate, select, and execute the proper motor response.
    2. The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement.
  • Common Muscle synergies
    • Squat = Quadriceps, Hamstring Complex, Gluteus Maximus
    • Shoulder Press = Deltoid, Rotator Cuff, Trapezius
    • rotator-cuff
    • Individuals who train using improper form will develop improper sensory information delivered to the CNS, leading to movement compensations and potential injury
    • The study of Motor Learning looks at how movements are learned and retained for future use.
    • Feedback
      1. The utilization of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to aid the kinetic chain in the development of permanent neural representations of motor patterns.
      2. The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning.
      3. There are 2 forms of feedback- Internal/External

      • Internal Feedback (Sensor Feedback) 
        The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment.
      • External Feedback
        Information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor, to supplement the internal environment. (examples include providing the client with positive or negative verbal feedback based on their performance of an exercise.)
    • Knowledge of performance is very important for both the trainer, and the client. A good knowledge of performance assists with explaining that a clients body may have been in the wrong position and why.
    • Excessive use of External Feedback may negatively impact the sensorimotor integration and motor learning, and ultimately the movement patterns- the client may become reliant of the trainer to constantly explain the workout and not learn how to successfully complete repetitions with proper form.

NASM Appendix D Hip Musculature

NASM Appendix D Hip Musculature

Concentrically accelerates hip abduction and internal rotation (anterior fibers)
Concentrically accelerates hip abduction and external rotation (posterior fibers)
Eccentrically decelerates hip adduction & external rotation (anterior fibers)
Eccentrically decelerates hip abduction & internal rotation (posterior fibers)
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
gluteus medius
Concentrically accelerates hip abduction and internal rotation
Eccentrically decelerates hip adduction & external rotation
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
gluteus minimus
Concentrically accelerates hip adduction, extension, and external rotation (from posterior view, behind hamstrings)
Eccentrically decelerates hip abduction, flexion & internal rotation
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
adductor magnus- posterior fibers
Concentrically accelerates hip adduction, flexion, and internal rotation/ Assists in tibial internal rotation
Eccentrically decelerates hip abduction, extension & external rotation
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex & knee
Concentrically accelerates hip adduction, flexion, and internal rotation (inner muscle behind femur)
Eccentrically decelerates hip abduction, extension & external rotation
Dynamically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
adductor magnus- anterior fibers
Concentrically accelerates hip adduction, flexion, and internal rotation (inner muscle behind femur)
Eccentrically decelerates hip abduction, extension & external rotation
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
adductor longus
Concentrically accelerates hip adduction, flexion, internal rotation (diagonal muscle at top of inner thigh)
Eccentrically decelerates hip abduction, extension & external rotation
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
adductor brevis
Concentrically accelerates hip adduction, flexion & internal rotation
Eccentrically decelerates hip abduction, extension & external rotation
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
Concentrically accelerates hip extension & external rotation
Eccentrically decelerates hip flexion & internal rotation
Decelerates tibial internal rotation via the iliotibial band
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
gluteus maximus
Concentrically accelerates hip external rotation, abduction and extension (inside pelvis)
Eccentrically decelerates hip internal rotation, adduction & flexion
Isometrically stabilizes the hip & sacroiliac joints
Concentrically accelerates hip flexion, abduction, and internal rotation (lateral sides of hips and thighs)
Eccentrically decelerates hip extension, adduction & external rotation
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
Tensor fascia Latae
Concentrically accelerates hip flexion and external rotation/ Concentrically extends and rotates lumbar spine (muscles on either side of the spine; lumbar spine to top of femur)
Eccentrically decelerates hip internal rotation, hip extension
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
Concentrically accelerates hip flexion and external rotation
Eccentrically decelerates hip extension & internal rotation
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
Concentrically accelerates hip flexion, external rotation and abduction/
Concentrically accelerates knee flexion and internal rotation
Eccentrically decelerates hip extension & internal rotation
Eccentrically decelerates knee extension & external rotation
Isometrically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex

NASM Registry practice test 1

Arterioles branch out into a multitude of microscopic blood vessels known as ? capillaries

2. Beta blockers typically have what effect on client’s heart rate? decrease heart rate

3. Clients who posess an anteriorly rotated pelvis should initially not use which equipment? bicycle

4. Client who exhibits the movement compensation of excessive forward lean during an overhead squat should NOT foam roll which muscles ? vastus lateralis

5. T/F CPR should be administered to anyone who is not breathing and has no pulse? True

6. During overhead squat assessment a client’s arms fall forward. Which stretch would be appropriate? static lat stretch

7. during overhead squat assessment client demonstrates an arched lower back. which stretch is most appropriate for this compensation? static kneeling hip flexor stretch

8. an example of a severe BMI score begins where? 35

9. the functional unit of a muscle formed by repeating sections of actin and myosin and lies spaces in the between to Z lines is? sarcomere

10. how many times more likely are individuals that are certain about what they want to accomplish successful in accomplishing their goals than those who are less certain? 6x more likely

11. If client’s low back arches while pressing overhead it is indicative of what? overactive latissimus dorsi

12. lifestyle questions the health and fitness professional should ask a client in the initial assessment include what? recreational activities

13. A lunge to two arm dumbbell press is considered what type of exercise? total-body strength

14. Obesity related health problems begin when person’s BMI exceeds?  25

15. What are optimum run strides? 2.1-2.5 times the leg length

16. the preferred resistance training system for using the OPT model is?  vertical loading

17. the process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion is known as? active-isolated stretching

18. Skin fold, bioelectrical impedance and underwater weighing assess what? body fat

19. static stretching requires holding muscle at point of tension for how many seconds? 20

20. total volume of work performed within a specific period of time is known as?  training volume

21. trauma to the tissue of the body creates inflamation resulting in muscle spasm and adhesions. If left unchecked, adhesions can begin to form permanent structural changes in soft tissues evident by which law?  Davies law

22. using durnin wormersley formula to asses and measure body fat percentage requires measurement of which 4 skin fold sites?  biceps, triceps, subscapular and iliac crest

23. what are guidelines for adequate excessive and potentially harmful intake of a nutrient for normal individuals?  dietary reference intake

24. What is an example of a core-stabilization exercise? prone iso abs

25. what is not a form of belief? motivation

26. what is not a potential response in the system when a stressor is too much to handle? muscle spasm

27. what is recommended rest interval between pairs when training in the power level of OPT? 1-2 minutes

28. When excited which of the following sensory receptors will cause an activated muscle to relax via autogenic inhibition? Golgi tendon organs

29. which energy source(s) are used while training in the first phase of the OPT stabilization endurance training? oxidative and glycolysis

30. Which muscles are involved in the inspiration phase? pectoralis minor

31. what does SCAMPI stand for?  specific, challenging, approach, measurable, proximal and inspirational

32.What equation is used to measure client’s BMI? weight (kg)/height (meters squared)

33. what is one of the most powerful predictors of success? belief

34. What is the correct position of the back leg during the cable rotation exercise? triple extension

35. What is the name of movement of a body part away from the middle of the body? abduction

36. what is the RDA for protein? .8/kg/d

37. what motion is the rectus abnominus responsible for? concentrically accelerating spinal flexion

38. What muscle is tight/overactive if clients feet turn out during overhead squat assessment ? soleus

39. what percentage of communication is based on physiology? 55%

40. When conducting waist to hip ratio, what is the range for women and men above which may put them at risk for disease? .80(w) and .95(m)

41. T/F  When designing a core training program for a new client, they should be progressed by starting with a slow, steady tempo with gradual increase? True

42. When sprinting, proper backside mechanics include what movement? ankle plantar flexion

43. When taking blood pressute what are normal diastolic pressure ranges? 80-85 mm Hg

44. Which exercise is performed predominantly in the sagital plane of motion? bicep curls

45. which group of nutrients can cause serious adverse effects including birth defects, calcification of blood vessels and damage to sensory nerves? A,D and B6

46. Which heart rate zone increases endurance and trains anaerobic threshold? Zone 2

47. Which muscle is primarily responsible for concentrically accelerating hip flexion and internal rotation? tensor fascia latae

48. Which section of the heart gathers reoxygenated blood from the lungs to send out to the body? left atrium

49. which sensory receptor is most sensitive to change in length and the rate at which that change in length occurs? muscle spindles

NASM Chapter 4 Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics

  • Metabolism
    All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body.
  • ***Before food can become a usable source of energy it has to be converted into small units call Substrates, Including Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats
  • Substrates
    The material or substance on which an enzyme acts.
  • Carbohydrates
    1. Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which include starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy. All carbohydrates are eventually broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar. 2. Neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and celluloses), which make up a large portion of animal foods.
  • Protein
    Amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds.
  • Fat
    One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats, saturated and unsaturated.
  • *** The energy stored in the substrate molecules is then chemically released in cells and stored in the form of a high-energy compound call Adenosine Triphosphae (ATP)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body.
  • Bioenergetics
    The study of energy in the human body.
  • Exercise Metabolism
    The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise.
  • ***The Primary end product after digestion of carbohydrates is Glucose
  • Glucose
    A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body’s main source of fuel. (Absorbed and transported in the blood, where it circulates until it enters cells (With the aid of insulin) and is either stored or used as energy.
  • ***The Storage form of carbohydrates is called Glycogen
  • Glycogen
    The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells. (Stored in the liver and muscle cells)
  • Triglycerides
    The chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body.
  • **Fat is a source of stored energy
  • **One of the benefits of Fat as a source of energy is that people have an inexhaustible supply of fat, which can be broken down into triglycerides and used for energy during prolonged physical activity or exercise
  • **Protein Rarely supplies energy during exercise and is often ignored as a significant source of fuel. NOTE* Protein becomes a fuel source during starvation or negative energy balance (Low calorie diet). Amino Acids are used to assist in energy production This is called- Gluconeogenesis
  • Gluconeogenesis
    The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids.
  • **When ATP is utilized and energy is released for cellular work (Such as a muscle contraction) it leaves behind a molecule named: (Adenosine Diphosphate ADP)
  • Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
    A high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed.
  • *** One of the functions of enery metabolism is to harness enough free energy to reattach a phosphate group to an ADP and restore ATP levels back to normal to perform more work.
  • ***Energy is used to form the myosin-actin cross-bridges that facilitate muscle contraction. (For 1 cycle of a cross-bridge, 2 ATP’s are needed)
  • ***Only about 40% of the energy released from ATP is actually used for cellular work, like muscle contraction. The remainder is released as Heat
  • *** When the enzyme ATPase combines with an ATP molecule, it splits the last phosphate group away, releasing a large amount of free energy, approx 7.3 kcal per unit of ATP. Once the phosphate group has been split off, what remains is ADP and an inorganic phosphate molecule (Pi)
  • ATP ⇔ ADP + Pi + Energy Release.
  • Before ATP can release additional energy again, it must add back another phosphate group to ADP through a process called- Phosphorylation.
  • ***When all the ATP is completely depleted, there is no energy to break the connection between cross-bridges and actin active sites, and the muscle goes into Rigor
  • Rigor (Rigor Mortis)
    A sudden feeling of cold with shivering accompanied by a rise in temperature, often with copious sweating, especially at the onset or height of a fever.
  • 3 metabolic pathways in which cell can generate ATP:
    • 1. The ATP-PC system
    • 2. The Glycolytic System (Glycolysis
    • 3. The Oxidative System (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
  • ATP-PC System
    • Simplest and fastest of the energy systems.
    • Occurs without presences of oxygen (Anaerobic)
    • Provides energy for primarily high-intensity, Short duration bouts of exercise or activity (Power and Strength training)
    • Normally lasts 10-15 seconds before complete exhaustion
    • This system is always activated at the onset of activity because of its’ ability to produce energy very rapidly.
  • Glycolysis
    • Referred to commonly as anaerobic glycolysis
    • Before glucose or glycogen can generate energy it must be converted to a compound called “Glucose-6-phosphate”
    • Glycolysis does not begin until glucose or glycogen is broken down into “Glucose-6-phosphate”
    • The conversion of Glucose uses 1 ATP molecule (Glycogen does not require ATP)
    • ***The End result of glycolysis in which glucose or glycogen is broken down into either pyruvic acid (Aerobic glycolysis) or lactic acid (Anaerobic Glycolysis) is 2 ATP for each mole or unit of glucose and 3 ATP from each unit of glycogen.
    • This system can produce a significantly greater amount of energy than the ATP-PC system, it is limited to approx 30-50 seconds of duration
    • Most fitness workouts will place a greater stress on this system than the other systems because a typical repetition range of 8-12 falls within this time frame
    • NOTE*** When in the presence of oxygen, Pyruvic Acid is converted into the molcule Acetyl Coenzyme A (CoA) This is an important molecule because it contributessubstraes for the use in the second process of oxidative production of ATP, Called the Krebs Cycle. 
      • 03fig02
  • The Oxidative System
    • Most complex of the 3- uses substrates with the aid of oxygen to generate ATP
    • ***Your maximal effort was fueled initially by the ATP-PC, but your performance declines. Continued effort results in further decline, either via fast glycolysis (quick decline) or slow glycolysis (slower decline). You’re now entering the complex world of the low power but longer duration oxidative system, which is estimated to create approximately 10 calories per minute
    • The effort demand is low, but ATP in this system can be produced three ways:
      1.Krebs cycle
      2.Electron Transport Chain
      3.Beta Oxidation.

      • The Krebs cycle
        A sequence of chemical reactions that continues to oxidize the glucose that was initiated during glycolysis. Acetyl A enters the Krebs cycle, is broken down in to carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and “poof” two more ATP molecules are formed.
      • Depending on some details, the complete metabolism of a single glucose molecule produces between 35-40 ATP
      • Fat that is metabolized aerobically undergoes a process termed Beta-oxidation (b-oxidation)
      • Beta-oxidation (b-oxidation)
        The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids (FFAs) to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP.
      • FullSizeRender
  • summary: Once an ATP has been used, it must be replenished before it can provide energy again. There are three metabolic pathways as mentioned prior.
    1. The ATP-PC system
    2. The Glycolytic System (Glycolysis
    3. The Oxidative System (Oxidative Phosphorylation)


  • After 90 minutes of exercise, the majority of muscle glycogen stores are depleted. Through a combination of training and high-carbohydrate intake, it is possible to store significantly greater quantities of glycogen, perhaps up to 50% more.
  • Carbohydrate loading does NOT improve performance, it does improve training Duration.
  • *** Measurements made for the purpose of assessing exercise metabolism are typically made during periods of Steady State (Constant pace exercise)
  • *** The body prefers aerobic or oxidative metabolism because carbon dioxide and water are more easily eliminated.
  • nsca-epoc
  • Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)
    The state in which the body’s metabolism is elevated after exercise.
  • ***In a 1992 Purdue study, results showed that high intensity, anaerobic type exercise resulted in a significantly greater magnitude of EPOC than aerobic exercise of equal work output
  • Studies comparing intermittent and continuous exercise consistently show a greater EPOC response for higher intensity, intermittent exercise (Example HIIT training)
  • Recovery of the ATP-PC cycle is complete in approx 90 sec.

The Respiratory Quotient (RQ) is the amount of Carbon Dioxide (co2) expired divided by the amount of oxygen (o2) consumed. This is measured during rest or at a steady state of exercise using a metabolic analyzer

  • During Steady-state exercise, an RQ of 1.0 indicates that carbohydrate is supplying 100% of fuel, whereas an RQ of 0.7 indicates that fat is supplying 100% of fuel for metabolism.
  • Any RQ between 0.7 and 1.0 indicates a mixture of carbohydrates and fats are fueling metabolism.
  • NASM-Table-4.1
  • The fat-burning zone.
    Yes, it exists, but it has been misinterpreted. The fat-burning zone is a concept that the body burns a greater amount of fat at lower-intensity aerobic exercise than it does at higher intensities. Actually, the body burns a greater percentage of fat at lower intensities than at higher intensities. At lower intensities the body may burn 50 percent of the calories from fat, while at higher intensities it may only burn 35 percent. But at higher intensities you burn way more total calories—and more fat calories overall—than you do at lower intensities.