In 1951 Jack LaLanne began hosting America’s first TV fitness show, Which aired until 1984

In 2008, The Federal Government issues its most comprehensive set of guidelines on physical Activity to date

  • Evidence of Muscular Dysfunction and Increased Injury
    • 1. Research suggests that MSK pain is more common now than it was 40 years ago.
    • 2. Low back pain (LBP) is the primary cause of MSK degeneration seen in the adult population (Affects nearly 80% of all adults) -Causes: Physical labor, Enclosed work spaces, Prolonged periods of sitting
    • 3.There are an estimated 80,000 – 100,000 ACL injuries per year. (most injuries occur in individuals between 15-25 years of age.
    • Unnatural posture, caused by improper sitting results in increased neck, mid- and lower back, shoulder and leg pain.
  • Deconditioned
    A state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and a lack of core and joint stability. (AKA out of shape)
  • Proprioception
    The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movements. (*NOTE: Most training programs do not use multiplanar movements -movements in all directions- when using a proprioceptively enriched environment)
  • Proprioceptively Enriched Environment
    An unstable (yet controllable) physical situation in which exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms. (Examples: Stability ball dumbbell chest press or single-leg squat Vs. Traditional bench or squat)


  • The Present: The Rise of Chronic Disease
    • Chronic diseases account for 70% of annual in the U.S.
    • Blood Lipids
      Also known as cholesterol and triglycerides, blood lipids are carried in the blood stream by protein molecules known as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) -Good Cholesterol- and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). -Bad Cholesterol-
    • Overweight
      Refers to a person with a body mass index of 25 to 29, or, who is between 25 to 30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height. (Note: 66% of Americans older than age 20 are Overweight)
    • Obesity
      1. The condition of being considerably overweight, and refers to a person with a body mass index of 30 or greater, or who is at least 30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height. 2. The condition of subcutaneous fat exceeding the amount of lean body mass. (Note: 34% of Americans are Obese)
    • Diabetes Mellitus
      Chronic metabolic disorder caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fats and proteins. (Accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes)
    • Cholesterol levels are considered Healthy when they are 200mg/dl or less
  • Integrated Training and the OP Model
    • Progressive system that includes training models
    • Optimum Performance Training (OPT Model)
      A systematic, integrated, and functional training program that simultaneously improves an individual’s biomotor abilities and builds high levels of functional strength, neuromuscular efficiency, and dynamic flexibility.
    • The OPT model is divided into 3 different levels of training
  •  nasm_triangleopt-steps
  • Stabilization Level
    • Phase 1: Stabilization Endurance training
    • Main focus- Increase Muscular Endurance and Stability while developing Neuromuscular efficiency(coordination) 
    • This level of training is Proprioceptively based
    • Muscular Endurance
      1. A muscle’s ability to contract for an extended period. 2. The ability to produce and maintain force production over prolonged periods of time.
    • Stability
      The ability of the body to maintain postural equilibrium and support joints during movement.
    • Neuromuscular Efficiency
      1. The ability of the neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion. 2. The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.
    • It must be noted that stabilization training must be done before Strength and Power training
    • Stabilization Endurance
      The ability of the stabilization mechanisms of the kinetic chain to sustain proper levels of stabilization to allow for prolonged neuromuscular efficiency.
    • nasm-table-14-7-stabilization-endurance (1)
  • Strength Level (Phase 2)
    • Emphasis is to maintain stabilization endurance while increasing Prime Mover strength
    • Prime Mover
      The muscle that acts as the initial and main source of motive power.
    • This is the level an individual will move to progress to if their goals are Hypertrophy(Increased muscle size) or Maximal Strength (Lifting Heavy Loads)
    • Maximal Strength
      The maximum force an individual’s muscle can produce in a single voluntary effort, regardless of the rate of force production.
    • This phase uses a Superset sequence to enhance stabilization endurance while increasing prime mover strength.
    • Superset
      Set of two exercises that are performed back-to-back, without any rest time between them.
    • the first exercise is a traditional strength exercise performed in a stable environment (Such as a bench press), whereas the second exercise is a stabilization exercise performed in a less stable (Yet controllable) Environment (Such as a stability ball push up)
    • ∗Supersets should be constructed with prime mover strength as the first exercise and stabilization muscles as the second
    • Goals- Improve lean body mass, overall work capacity, and joint stabilization.
    • Hypertrophy Training (Phase 3)
    • Training for size
    • Maximal Strength Training (Phase 4)
    • Training for strength
  • Power Level (Phase 5)
    • Entered after successful completion of the Stabilization and Strength Levels
    • Emphasizes the development of speed and power.
    • Execution of traditional strength exercises with a heavy load superset with power exercises with a light load performed as fast as possible of similar joint dynamics
    • This level focuses on Rate of Force Production
    • Rate of Force Production
      Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.

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