MuscleTech Clear Muscle Review

MuscleTech Clear Muscle, 168 Count


Clear muscle is the alleged breakthrough product that is supposed to promote extreme recovery times and nearly eliminate catabolism of muscle post workout and through a stress-induced day.

I am currently on my 2nd bottle of this product (168 count bottle). I have mentioned in other posts that I am not new to recovery products but this is my first time taking any form of the chemicals HMB. I did a lot of research prior to taking this product with a ton of mixed reviews. Given the average price per bottle of Clear muscle it had deterred me from ordering for months. A good buddy of mine who is also a personal trainer suggested that I would see results with this product.

I am 5’9″ 182LBP’s and 7.5% Bodyfat. My workout regime is 3 days a work of periodized muscle group training with 1 day rest. typical gym trips are 2-3 hours with 10 minutes pre/post warm/up and cooldown sessions. I do kickboxing and basketball 1-3 days weekly.

Week 1: I didn’t notice much- no aftertaste, change in aesthetics, or major muscle changes.

Week 2: Recovery time began to increase as well as duration of workout energy. The pills are easy enough to take and I was not having any negative benefits so starting about day 10 I was starting to notice a decent benefit

Week 3: This is when the benefits of this product started to show. With most products there is an inherent loading phase and I am assuming it is the same with ClearMuscle. My bodyfat percentage started to decrease, my rep count was progressing at an increasing rate and my lean muscle mass was starting to make very noticeable differences. I would consider myself someone who rates “Fair” as in I am not going to give a product a “Good or better” rating unless it’s honesty. This product started making noticeable changes to the point people were making “Good job bro” comments.

Week 4: Much like week 3 the progress continued. Typically at the first hour I would find it necessary to take in a few carbs, some protein and rest for 5-10 minutes as I progressed my workout. By the beginning of week 4 on this product I felt like a million bucks. It was no longer necessary to take a break and I felt like my normal rest times were becoming less and less (Unless needed for strength training)

I will continue to update progress reports at the end of this next bottle. I highly suggest giving this product a try as I saw results on my very first bottle.

Muscletech Plasma Muscle Review

MuscleTech Perfomance Series Plasma Muscle-Building Stack, 84 Count

Plasma muscle is Muscletech’s brand new release in their attempt to make their new PeakATP formula approach. Much like the other products from their new line there is 400mg per 3 pill serving of PeakATP. as well as a new formula called OptiNOS.


Currently I am on my 5th day of taking this product. I will continue to cover the Pros and Cons of this product throughout the cycle.

days 1-5

day 1 this product initially gave me a bit of a “Buzz” feeling much like a caffeine high. I have an extremely high tolerance to caffeine so I was excited to find a product that has no apparent stimulant effects give me such a pep. I am assuming the initial buzz was due to the OptiNOS formula as I have been taking PeakATP for the passed 32 days consecutively.

As for muscle recovery on days 1-5 I have been hitting the gym (After a 12 hour shift at a clinic) for 2-3 hour 3 days on 1 day of and a side schedule of basketball. While I can say it may be too soon to truly gauge this product I have been around the block with recovery product throughout my personal training career and this product definitely has some great properties.

I will continue to update but my current rating for the Plasma Muscle by Muscletech

Days 1-5 rating:

Pump- 4/5

Recovery 4/5

Taste N/A pill form

Stomach pains or nauseousness 2/5

Noticeable strength gains 3/5 (too soon to truly gauge)

Worth the money: (So far)

Overall 4.5/5

NASM Chapter 20 Developing a Successful Personal Training Business

Understanding Business Principles

  • Although generating revenue in excess of expenses, for example, “making a profit,” is the assumed goal of any business, profit alone is not the only or even “sole” purpose of the business itself.
  • Running a successful personal training business, whether as an independent business owner, as an independent contractor, or an employee in a health club setting, is no different than running a successful Fortune 500 business; the motto is always “the customer always comes first!”
  • Earning a certification from a recognized and accredited organization should be an aspiring fitness trainer’s first goal.

Where to work?

  • Possible facilities include
  • ■ YMCA
  • ■ Jewish Community Centers (JCC)
  • ■ Local Town Recreation & Park Services
  • ■ Women only facilities
  • ■ Commercial fitness clubs
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Resume Writing

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  • THE MARKETING MIX (THE FOUR PS OF MARKETING) To have a successful marketing plan, fitness professionals must have an understanding of the marketing mix, also known as the four Ps of marketing. The marketing mix refers to activities that a personal trainer can control to produce the response he or she wants from a target market. The four Ps of marketing include:
  • Product: The specific product or service offered to customers.
  • Price: The amount charged for a product or service, including volume discounts, seasonal pricing, and bundle packages.
  • Place (distribution): Channels a product or service will go through to reach the customer.
  • Promotion: The communication of information about a product or service with the goal of generating a positive customer response. Some marketing communication strategies include advertising, sales, social media, and public relation

10 Step to Success

  • Step 1: What is the Desired Annual Income? An annual income goal is the achievable desired sum total of monthly earnings over 12 months. After clearly identifying a desired annual income, move on to step 2. Example: Based on her expenses and lifestyle, Christy would like to earn $40,000 annually as a fi tness professional.
  • Step 2: How Much Must be Earned Per Week to Achieve the Annual Goal? Divide the desired annual income by 50 to fi gure out what will need to be earned on a weekly basis. (Instead of dividing by the 52 weeks in a year, use the number 50 to allow for 2 weeks of vacation, sick time, jury duty, and so on.) Example: Christy divides $40,000 by 50, which equals $800. She knows that she will need to earn $800 each week to hit her goal.
  • Step 3: To Earn the Weekly Goal, How Many Sessions Need to be Performed? To earn the weekly amount, how many clients or sessions are needed each week? To establish this number, take the weekly goal and divide it by the amount earned per session. Example: Christy divides $800 by $25 per hour. Now, Christy knows that she will need to perform 32 sessions per week to hit her goal. Also, take the current average number of paid sessions performed weekly and divide it by the number of clients currently signed up. Example: Christy currently performs 20 sessions per week and has 11 regular clients. She divides and gets a number of 1.82. So, Christy divides her goal of 32 sessions by 1.82 and can now estimate that she needs at least 18 clients to hit her income goals
  • Step 4: What is the Closing Percentage? Personal trainers need to figure out their closing percentage. This number is determined by the total number of people helped on the fl oor compared with how many of them purchased training packages. Example: Christy looks back at her contact log and ascertains that she has spoken to 60 members in the last 30 days. Of those 60 members, she managed to sign up 5 of them as clients. When she divides 5 by 60, she sees that her closing rate is 8%.
  • Step 5: In What Time frame Will New Clients be Acquired? Unrealistic timeframes will likely lead to frustration and disappointment. However, if a timeframe is set too far in the future, it will not create the sense of urgency necessary to maximize performance. Example: Since she now has 11 clients and needs to have at least 18 to hit her goals, Christy decides that she wants to gain at least 7 more clients. She decides to set a time frame of 3 weeks to gain 7 new clients.
  • Step 6: How Many Potential Clients Need to be Interacted with Overall to Gain Clients within the Timeframe? Take the desired number of new clients and divide that number by the closing percentage. Example: Christy wants 7 new clients and her closing rate is 8%. She divides 7 by 8% and comes up with 87.5. Christy must have excellent contact with at least 88 members during the next 3 weeks to come close to her goal of 7 new clients. Break down the number of members that need to be interacted with overall into weekly increments to make the process more manageable. Example: Christy needs to contact at least 88 members during the next 3 weeks. She divides 88 by 3 and realizes that she has to contact about 30 members each week.
  • Step 7: How Many Potential Clients Need to be Contacted Each Day? Further break down the number of members that need to be interacted with on a weekly basis into daily increments to create concrete goals for each workday. Example: Christy is aiming to contact 30 members each week. She works 5 days per week. So, she divides 30 by 5 and discovers that she only needs to talk to 6 members each day. This is a much more manageable number than she originally thought.
  • Step 8: How Many Potential Clients Need to be Contacted Each Hour of the Day? Once more, break down the number of members that need to be contacted on a daily basis into hourly increments to form easy, solid plans for each hour on the fl oor. Example: Now that she knows she only needs to approach 6 members each day, Christy divides that number by her actual fl oor time. She generally conducts four 1-hour sessions each day during her 8-hour shift. She also takes a half-hour lunch and usually conducts one half-hour orientation. That leaves her with 3 hours on the fl oor to contact her goal of 6 members. Christy now knows that after dividing 6 by 3, she must talk to a member every 30 minutes to achieve her goals. For each contact in that hour, provide measurable, personalized assistance that is related to the goal of the person being approached. These contacts, even if they do not develop into sales, add to a valuable future prospect base.
  • Step 9: Ask Each Member Spoken to for His or Her Contact Information. The NASM-certified personal trainer possesses core competencies of individualized assessment, OPT program design, and exercise selection. These personal trainers automatically have the capacity to provide a personalized, results-oriented experience for any member they make a connection with. If a good level of rapport has been built with a member, do not be afraid to ask him or her for their contact information. Offer to develop a few exercises to help him or her achieve the goals discussed. Contact the member and arrange a time to assist them in implementing the new exercises during his or her next visit to the club.
  • Step 10: Follow Up. It should be clear by now that every exercise is an assessment. Regardless of the exercise that a member was doing on the fl oor, write down what you saw according to the fi ve kinetic chain checkpoints in general movement and postural observations. Write and keep detailed notes on each member. Within 24 hours, mail the member a handwritten thank-you card for the time they spent with you in the club. This is classy and considerate, causing members to remember you. Give the card 2 to 3 days to arrive, and then call the member 1 week from initial contact. During the call, work toward the following goals:

NASM Chapter 19 Lifestyle Modification and Behavioral Coaching


  • Most American adults simply do not participate in enough regular exercise to improve
    and maintain their health and well-being.
  • Despite the physiological and psychological benefits of exercise, including reduced anxiety, depression, and risk of cardiovascular disease, better weight control, and increased self-esteem, activity levels continue to decline
  • It is estimated that more than 75% of the American adult population does not partake, on a daily basis, in 30 minutes of low-to-moderate physical activity

Working with the Client

  • Personal trainers have 20 seconds to make a good first impression. That first impression
    1■ Making eye contact
    2■Introducing yourself by name and getting the client’s name
    3■ Smiling
    4■ Shaking hands with the client
    5■ Remembering the client’s name and using it
    6■ Using good body language
  • Besides attitudes, behaviors, and good communication, here are some other important
    qualities of a personal trainer :
    1■ Personal trainers need to look professional: neat, clean, and well dressed.
    2■ Personal trainers need to take time to build a relationship with new clients.
    3■ Clients need to feel that the personal trainer is listening to them.
    4■ Personal trainers need to maintain confidentiality and ensure the client’s safety at all
    5■ Personal trainers should be friendly, warm, interested, and compassionate.
    6■ Personal trainers should collaborate with clients regarding their exercise routine.
    7■ Personal trainers should model all exercises, explaining correct alignment and form.
    8■ Personal trainers ask lots of good questions and perform comprehensive initial

The Stages of Changes

  • Stage 1: Precontemplation
  • No intention of changing. Do not exercise and do not intend to start within 6 months.
  • Education is best strategy with precontemplators.
  • Stage 2: Contemplation
  • Thinking about becoming more active in next 6 months.
  • Listen to what contemplators need and support them any way that they can.
  • Contemplators still need information.
  • Personal trainers need to find out what clients see as the pros and cons of exercise and suggest avenues of information for erroneous beliefs.
  • Stage 3: Preparation
  • Exercise (occasionally) but are planning to begin exercising regularly next month.
  • The client may have unrealistic expectations for the change they hope to achieve, oftentimes leads to high risk of disappointment and early dropout.
  • The best strategies for working with people in the preparation stage include:
    1■ Help clients at this stage clarify realistic goals and expectations.
    2■ Help clients maintain their beliefs in the importance of exercise.
    3■ Discuss programs that work best for different clients.
    4■ Consider clients’ schedules, preferences, and health concerns.
    5■ Ask about previous successful experiences with exercise.
    6■ Avoid exercise that could lead to discomfort or injury.
    7■ Discuss building a social support network.
  • Stage 4: Action
  • By this stage the client has started exercise, but not yet maintained behavior for 6 months.
  • Continue to provide them with education. Work with their clients to develop steps for overcoming any barriers or disruptions.
  • Stage 5: Maintenance
  • Maintained change for 6 months or more.
  • The client may still be tempted to return to old habits.
  • Personal trainers can help enhance a person’s motivation to exercise, provide social support, and help support exercise intentions

The Initial Session

  • Personal trainer have 20 seconds to make a good first impression.
  • Typically, before a client hears anything they tend to notice body language fi rst. If a personal trainer’s body language portrays a lack of welcoming, or a lack of friendliness and warmth, their 20-second impression is not going to be positive
  • Discuss health concerns.
  • Personal trainers need to know that it is okay to let a client know that in the initial session they will spend at least 30 minutes just talking and getting to know them.
  • Clarify fitness goals. Verbalize goals. Set SMART goals, specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely.
  • Reviewing previous exercise experiences
  • Finalizing program design. Have good sense of health concerns, fitness goals, and past positive and negative experiences.
  • Help clients anticipate the process.
  • Stress reduction is one of the primary reasons people stick to an exercise program. Ask clients about their stress levels and suggests that exercise might be beneficial.

Importance of Effective Communication

  • Difference between success and failure in relationship between trainer and his or her client.
  • Explain important policies, procedures, and expectations so clients understand what is expected of them.
  • Be sensitive to clients’ feelings and connect emotionally to them (express empathy).
  • Communicate consistently according to your personality and training style.
  • Use a positive communication approach that includes encouragement, support, and positive reinforcement.
  • ***Greet your client with a hello and a smile
  • Nonverbal and verbal communication – posture, body language, verbal must be clear to be understood correctly.
  • Active listening is more than having good communication skills. Active listening is about having an attitude and genuine interest in seeking a client’s perspective and getting to know him or her this requires the trainer takes genuine interest in client’s perspective and getting to know them. Pay attention, avoid distractions, look the speaker in the eye.
  • Ask Open-ended questions cannot be answered with a number, a place, or yes or no. They require clients to elaborate. Open-ended questions are very important for building collaborative relationships with a client because they invite discussion.
  • Reflecting is a type of listening and expression -Express the purported meaning of what you just heard. Make sure client is accurately understood.
  • Summarizing – Draws all important points of conversation together and again allow clients to clarify either what they have said or how someone has interpreted what they have said.
  • Affirmations show appreciation for clients and their strengths. Listen carefully to know what to affirm. Validate positive comments about their thoughts, plans, skills.
  • Asking permission – ask permission to share information (This is referring to personal information from you -the trainer- to the client)

Smart Goals

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Cognitive Strategies

  • Positive self-talk Helps clients become aware of their negative thought process. Help clients come up with list of positive thoughts they might use with regard to exercise. Train clients to notice negative thoughts, stop negative thoughts, and translate those into something positive.
  • Exercise imagery
    process created to produce internalized experiences to support or enhance exercise participation. Clients can imagine themselves approaching their activity with greater confidence. Visualize performing with greater relaxation and muscle control. Rehearse positive outcomes.
  • Personal trainers need to help clients come up with a list of things that will help get them psyched up for exercise. Some examples include positive thoughts, keywords, imagery, specific food, and music.

Psychological Benefits of Exercise

  • Discussing the physiologic benefits of exercise with your clients can be very beneficial.
  • Benefits include:
  • 1. Positive mood
  • 2. Reduced stress
  • 3. Improvement of sleep quality.

NASM Chapter 18 Supplementation

Introduction to Supplementation

  • the traditional reason for use a dietary supplement is to provide the body with nutrients that might not be supplied adequately by a person’s typical diet
  • around the middle of the 20th century the use of dietary supplements was primarily in the form
    a one-a-day type of vitamin mineral supplement
  • today dietary supplements are much more than a low dosage vitamin mineral pill taken by a small percentage of the population


  • the popularity of dietary supplements has grown steadily in the United States
  • with sales in the supplement industry booming during the nineteen nineties
  • estimates put total sales at 3.3 billion dollars for nineteen ninety- growing to more than 100 billion in 2008
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Rationale For the Use of Dietary Supplements

  • Various studies have reported that people taking a multivitamin supplement experience a reduced risk
    of chronic disease development
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Dietary Reference Intakes

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  • Even essential nutrients are potentially toxic at some level of intake.
  • Vitamin D excess can result in the calcifi cation of blood vessels and eventually damage the function of the kidneys, heart, and lungs
  • Excessive intake of vitamin B6 can cause permanent damage to sensory nerves


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  • Proteins, carbs, fats expressed in grams
  • Vitamins, minerals, amino acids are expressed in milligram(mg) or microgram(mcg or ug)
  • IUs are expressed in international units.

Ergogenic Aids

  • Ergogenic means work generating.
  • An ergogenic aid is something that enhances athletic performance.
  • Creatine –synthesizes naturally in human body from amino acids methionine, glycine, and arginine.
  • In resting skeletal muscle, about two thirds of creatine exists in a phosphorylated form that can rapidly regenerate ATP to maintain high-intensity muscular efforts for up to about 10 seconds.
  • When creatine supplementation is combined with strength-training program, it has been shown to increase muscle mass, strength, and anaerobic performance.
  • Typical dose begins with 5 to 7 days at 20g per day (Loadingh phase) then often followed by 2 to 5g a day to sustain maximal muscle creatine levels.
  • Consuming creatine with carbs can enhance muscle uptake of creatine and potentially increase muscle levels above that achieved without concurrent carb consumption.
  • Creatine plays an essential role in normal brain function.
  • Creatine is not a banned substance and is not considered negative for health.


  • Caffeine – most widely used drug in the world.
  • Acts as stimulant, primarily affects central nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscles.
  • Ergogenic effects from caffeine, especially when tested on well-trained athletes performing endurance exercises(more than one hour) or high intensity short-duration exercise lasting about 5 minutes.
  • Does not appear to be ergogenic effect on sprint type efforts lasting 90 seconds or less.
  • Most effective ergogenic response observed when dose of caffeine is 3 to 6 mg per kg body weight,
  • Ingested 1 hour before exercise. For 155lb person this is 210 to 420mg of caffeine.
  • Possible adverse effects range from the well-known insomnia and nervousness to lesser known
    effects like nausea, rapid heart and breathing rates, convulsions, and increased urine production.
  • Other symptoms that have been reported include headache, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythm


NASM Chapter 17 Nutrition


  • Nutrition
    The process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and repair of tissues.


  • Personal trainers should be familiar with the concepts of nutrition.
  • Integrating nutritional
  • strategies with exercise will help clients achieve their desired outcomes. It is important, however, to recognize and respect the scope of practice of each professional field.
  • 46 states have specific laws that explicitly define scope and practice for nutrition and dietetics professionals, and performing these duties without a license could be considered illegal.
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Daily Energy Needs

  • Calorie (lower case “c”)
    amount of heat energy required to raise temp of 1 gram of water 1C.
  • Calorie (upper case C) 
    Unit expression of energy equal to 1,000 calories. Amount of heat energy required to raise 1 KG or liter of water 1C or kilocalorie.
  • Kilocalorie
    equal to 1,000 calories, raise 1kg of water 1 degree C.
  • Estimated total energy expenditure (TEE), also referred to as total daily energy expenditure (TDEE)
    defined as the amount of energy (calories) spent, on average, in a typical day. TEE is actually the sum total of three different energy components:
  •  Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
    The amount of energy expended while at rest; represents the minimal amount of energy required to sustain vital bodily functions such as blood circulation, respiration, and temperature regulation. RMR typically accounts for 70% of TEE.
  • Thermic effect of food (TEF)
    The amount of energy expended above RMR as a result of the processing of food (digestion) for storage and use. TEF typically accounts for approximately 6–10% of TEE.
  • Energy expended during physical activity
    The amount of energy expended above RMR and TEF associated with physical activity. Physical activity accounts for approximately 20% of TEE.

Resting metabolic rate

  • RMR Accounts for 70% of total daily energy expenditure in sedentary person.
  • Affected by wide variety of factors including age, sex, genetics, hormonal changes, body size, body comp.
  • 27 million Americans have thyroid related disorders.
  • Cardiovascular medicationss can reduce RMR from 4 to 12%.
  • Chemo can reduce RMR from 6 to 11%.
  • Long term use of growth hormone increases RMR by 12%.
  • Thyroid meds and hypothyroidism can increase RMR by 17%.
  • To avoid declines in resting metabolism individuals should be encouraged to avoid starvation diets that could lead to wasting of skeletal muscle and instead be encouraged to build and maintain muscle for active living.
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Thermic effect of food

  • Process of digestion requires energy, increase in energy expenditure after meal is called thermic effect of food (TEF) 6-10% of total energy expenditure

Estimating Total Daily Energy Expenditure



  • Even the most commonly used formulas can have up to a 20% variance in overestimating
    or underestimating resting metabolism and total energy expenditure


  • Protein
    Amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
  • The primary function of protein is to build and repair body tissues and structures. It is also involved in the synthesis of hormones, enzymes, and other regulatory peptides. Additionally, protein can be used for energy if calories or carbohydrate are insufficient in the diet

Structure of Protein

  • Proteins are made up of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. The body uses approximately 20 amino acids to build its many different proteins
  • There are two general classes of amino acids: essential and nonessential
  • Essential amino acids cannot be manufactured in the body (or are manufactured in insufficient amounts); therefore, they must be obtained from the food supply or some other exogenous source. (8 total aminos in this catagory)
  • nonessential aminos are termed so because the body is able to manufacture them from dietary nitrogen and fragments of carbohydrate and fat
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Digestion, Absorption, and Utilization

  • Proteins must be broken down into the constituent amino acids before the body can use them to build or repair tissue or as an energy substrate
  • Proteins encounter HCL in stomach which uncoils(denatures) protein so that digestive enzymes can begin dismantling peptide bonds. The enzyme pepsin begins to cleave protein strand into smaller polypeptides(strands of several amino acids) and single amino acids.
  • As protein fragments leave stomach and enter small intestine, pancreatic and intestinal proteases(protein enzymes) continue to dismantle the protein fragments
  • Resulting dipeptides, tripeptides, and single amino acids are then absorbed through the intestinal wall into enterocytes and released into the blood supply to the liver.
    Once in bloodstream, free-form amino acids have several possible fates: they can be used for protein synthesis(building and repairing tissues or structures), immediate energy, or potential energy(fat storage).
  • Amino acids are first deaminated(stripped of amine group), allowing remaining carbon skeleton to be used for production of glucose or ketones to be used for energy.
  • Removed amine group produces ammonia, which is converted to urea in the liver and excreted as urine by the kidneys.
  • If intake exceeds need for synthesis, then proteins are deaminated, carbon fragments stored as fat
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Protein in Foods

  • Dietary protein is the delivery vehicle for amino acids
  • If food supplies all essential amino acids in appropriate ratios it is called complete protein.
  • If food source is low or lacking in one or more essential amino acids it is called incomplete protein.
  • Terms used to rate dietary protein include
  • 1. protein efficiencyratio (PER)
  • 2. net protein utilization (NPU)
  • 3. biologic value (BV)
  • Biologic value (BV) measure frequently used when discussing protein sources, BV is measure of protein quality, how well it satisfies body’s essential amino acid needs. ( frequently used when discussing protein sources in popular media and by supplement manufacturers.)
  • Protein source with higher score provides amino acid profile that is more closely related to needs of the human body.
  • Major sources of complete proteins are animal sources, dairy and meats.
  • Sources of incomplete protein include grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, and other vegetables.


  • If one does not eat adequate amounts of carbohydrate and fat (as is often seen in low-calorie or low-carbohydrate diets or during physique-competition preparation), more protein will be used for energy by default.

Negative Energy Balance

  • For clients pursuing body-fat reduction, body-fat loss goals require that a caloric deficit be maintained until the goal is reached.
  • During a negative energy balance, amino acids are used to assist in energy production, a term referred to as gluconeogenesis.
  • The amount of lean body mass lost in persons in a negative energy balance can be reduced by increasing the amount of protein in the diet, leading to a more rapid return to nitrogen balance.

Protein and the Bodybuilder

  • Bodybuilders during positive energy balance (off-season) should follow the same protein recommendations as strength athletes. However, during negative energy balance
    (used to create competition-level body-fat percentages), protein requirements may dramatically increase.
  • Competitive levels of body fat are generally unhealthy and impossible to maintain for prolonged periods.
  •  In fact, it appears that carbohydrate
    (1 g per kg or 0.5 gram per pound), not protein, consumed within an hour after heavy resistance training inhibits muscle-protein breakdown, resulting in a positive protein balance

How much protein is required to build muscle

  • Skeletal muscle is approximately 72% water, 22% protein, and 6% fat, glycogen, and minerals, and 1 pound of muscle tissue contains approximately 100 g of protein.
  • Theoretically, an athlete would have to ingest an extra 14 g of protein per day, although most experts believe the single most important factor in gaining lean mass (along with resistance training, of course) is consuming adequate calories.
  • Therefore, to ensure the body has suffi cient energy for lean mass accretion, consume an additional 200 to 400 calories daily (3 to 5 calories per kg or 1.5 to 2.5 calories per pound per day) above maintenance requirements in addition to consuming a little extra protein (approximately 2 ounces of lean meat).

Protein’s Effect on Satiety

  • As with all macronutrients, protein activates specific satiety mechanisms and may be more satiating
    than fat and carbohydrate.
  • Individuals seeking fat loss may benefit from the satiating properties of protein to feel full and energized throughout the day. This can assist clients in program adherence
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  • a small person losing fat (or hypocaloric) and exercising using strength and aerobic training may have a high percentage of protein (around 25%) but still fall in the appropriate range of absolute protein (1.2 to 1.7 g/kg/day).

Negative Side Effects Associated with Chronic Use of High-Protein Diets

  • A high-protein diet is typically defined as one that consists of more than 35% of total caloric intake from protein, or three times the protein RDA for athletes.
  • there is a need for greater fluid consumption when consuming large quantities of protein. Protein requires approximately seven times the water for metabolism than carbohydrate or fat.
  • Low-carbohydrate consumption typically accompanies high-protein diets (especially for weight loss), which can lead to decreased glycogen stores, inhibition of performance, and possible dehydration.
  •  Because dehydration of as little as 3% can impair performance, athletes and active individuals ingesting extra protein should weigh themselves regularly to ensure they are properly hydrated.
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  • Carbohydrates
    Neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and celluloses), which make up a large portion of animal foods.
  • The definition of sugar, as it would appear on a food label, is any monosaccharide or disaccharide
  • A monosaccharide is a single sugar unit, many of which are connected to make
    starches (the storage form of carbohydrates in plants) and glycogen (the storage form
    of carbohydrates in humans).
  • Monosaccharides include glucose (commonly referred to as blood sugar), fructose (or fruit sugar), and galactose.
  • Disaccharides (two sugar units) include sucrose (or common sugar), lactose (or milk sugar), and maltose.
  • Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharide units linked together and found in foods that contain starch and fiber. These foods are often called complex carbohydrates and include starch found in plants, seed, and roots.
  • Carbohydrates are a chief source of energy for all body functions and muscular

Digestion, Absorption, and Utilization

  • The principal carbohydrates present in food occur in the form of simple sugars, starches, and cellulose.
  • Simple sugars, such as those in honey and fruits, are very easily digested.
  • Double sugars, such as table sugar, require some digestive action but are not nearly as
    complex as starches, such as those found in whole grain.
  • Starches require prolonged enzymatic action to be broken down into simple sugars (i.e., glucose) for utilization.
  • The rate at which ingested carbohydrate raises blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release is referred to as the glycemic index (GI)
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Role of Fiber in Health

  • Higher fiber intake is associated with lower incidence of heart disease and certain types of cancer.
  • Insoluble fiber does not absorb or dissolve in water passes through the digestive tract close to its original form.
  • Insoluble fiber offers many benefits to intestinal health, including a reduction in the risk and occurrence of colorectal cancer, hemmrrhoids, and constipation.
  • Additional benefits of fiber include:
  • 1. Provides bulk in the diet, thus increasing the satiety value of foods.
  • 2. Some fi bers also delay the emptying of the stomach, further increasing satiety (78).
  • 3. Prevents constipation and establishes regular bowel movements.
  • 4.  May reduce the risks of heart and artery disease by lowering blood cholesterol.
  • 5. Regulates the body’s absorption of glucose (diabetics included), perhaps because
    fiber is believed to be capable of controlling the rate of digestion and assimilation of carbohydrates.
  • 6. High-fi ber meals have been shown to exert regulatory effects on blood glucose levels
    for up to 5 hours after eating.

Carbohydrate Intake Performance

  • 6 and 10g/kg/day of carbs is recommended. 45 to 65% of total caloric intake. Complex carbs constitute majority of calories.
  • Before exercise consume high carb meal 2 to 4 hours. Glycogen stores are lowered by as much as 80% in the mornings.
  • Endurance athletes consume between 30 and 60g of carbs every hour to maintain blood glucose levels.
  • One hour of intense cycling was improved by 12% with consumption of 53 ounces of water containing 79g of carbs.
  • Timing of carbs important for maximizing recovery, recommended consuming 1.5g per KG of carbs within 30 mins of completing exercise to maximize glycogen replenishment. Delaying intake by even 2 hours can decrease total muscle glycogen synthesis by 66%.
  • PWO environment hasten glycogen repletion as a result of increased blood flow to muscles and increased sensitivity of cells to effects of insulin.
  • For exercise lasting more than 1 hour, carbohydrate feedings during exercise can help supply glucose to working muscles whose glycogen stores are dwindling. This technique also maintains blood glucose levels, increasing time to exhaustion by 20 to 60 minutes
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  • Lipids are a group of compounds that include triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and sterols. Of the lipids contained in food, 95% are fats and oils. In the body, 99% of the stored lipids are also triglycerides.
  • Structurally, triglycerides are three fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone

Fatty Acids

  • Fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated
  • Unsaturated fatty acids maybe further classified according to their degree of unsaturation.
  • If the fatty acid has one double bond in its carbon chain, it is called a monounsaturated fatty acid
  • If there is more than one point of unsaturation, it is classifi edas a polyunsaturated fatty acid
  • Saturated and trans Fats increase risk factors for heart disease because they raise bad cholesterol levels (Low-density lipoproteins; LDL)
  • Mono and Poly Unsaturated fats are associated are considered to have favorable effects on blood.

Function of Lipids

  • Lipids (or fats) are the most concentrated source of energy in the diet. One gram of fat yields approximately 9 calories when oxidized, furnishing more than twice the calories per gram of carbohydrates or proteins.
  •  Fats are involved in the following:
  • ■ Cellular membrane structure and function
  • ■ Precursors to hormones
  • ■ Cellular signals
  • ■ Regulation and excretion of nutrients in the cells
  • ■ Surrounding, protecting, and holding in place organs, such as the kidneys, heart, and liver
  • ■ Insulating the body from environmental temperature changes and preserving body heat
  • ■ Prolonging the digestive process by slowing the stomach’s secretions of hydrochloric acid, creating a longer-lasting sensation of fullness after a meal
  • ■ Initiating the release of the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), which contributes to satiety


  • Throughout the day, triglycerides are constantly cycled in and out of tissues, including muscles, organs, and adipose
  • Distribution Range for fat intake for an adult is 20 to 35% of total caloric intake
  • Athletes are recommended to consume 20 to 25% of total calories from fat,
  • there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming less than 15% of energy from fat
  • Medium Chained Triglycerides Do not increase performance or weight loss
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  • Sedentary men and women should consume on average 3.0 L (approximately 13 cups) and 2.2 L (approximately 9 cups) of water per day
  • Those participating in a fat-loss program should drink an additional 8 ounces of water for every 25 pounds they carry above their ideal weight.
  • Water intake should also be increased if an individual is exercising briskly or residing in a hot climate.
  • it constitutes approximately 60% of the adult human body by weight.
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  • For Lean Body Mass Gain:
  • ■ Eat four to six meals a day. Insulin response to a meal stimulates protein synthesis.
  • ■ Spread protein intake throughout the day to take advantage of the previous tip.
  • ■ Keep in mind the postworkout window of opportunity. Ingestion of protein and carbohydrate within 90 minutes of a workout will increase recovery and protein synthesis, maximizing gains. This may be most easily accomplished with a liquid meal-replacement formula that can be absorbed quickly owing to being predigested. Food may take several hours to digest and absorb, missing the window.
  • ■ Do not neglect the importance of carbohydrate and fat. It takes more than protein to increase lean body mass.
  • Although gym lore places recommendations as high as 2 g of protein per pound of body weight, the scientifically based recommendation for strength athletes range from 0.5 to 0.8 grams of protein per pound
    (1.2 to 1.7 g per kg)
  • Fitness professionals should discourage overly restrictive programs advocating less than 1,000 to 1,200 calories per day, and support safe, maintainable weight loss by means of more healthful eating, smaller portions, and increased activity

NASM Chapter 16 Chronic Health Conditions and Physical or Functional Limitations

Age Considerations

  • youth refers to children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 20
  • Current recommendations state that children and adolescents should get 60 minutes (1 hour) or more of physical activity daily.
  • Children and adolescents should engage in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening activities daily to improve their health and reduce their risk of developing chronic disease.


  • Personal trainers should be aware of important physiologic differences between children and adults that impact their response and adaptation to exercise. These include:
  • ■ Peak oxygen uptake: Because children do not typically exhibit a plateau in oxygen
    uptake at maximal exercise, the term “peak oxygen uptake” is a more appropriate term than V˙O2 max or maximal oxygen uptake. Adjusted for body weight, peak oxygen consumption is similar for young and mature males, and slightly higher for young females (compared with mature females). A similar relationship also exists for force production, or strength.
  • ■ Submaximal oxygen demand (or economy of movement): Children are less efficient
    and tend to exercise at a higher percentage of their peak oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise compared with adults.
    ■ Children do not produce sufficient levels of glycolytic enzymes to be able to sustain bouts of high-intensity exercise.
    ■ Children have immature thermoregulatory systems, including both a delayed response
    and limited ability to sweat in response to hot, humid environments.
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Resistance Training for Youth

  • Resistance training for health and fitness conditioning in youth also results in a lower risk of injury when compared with many popular sports (including soccer, football, and basketball)
  • The most common injuries associated with resistance training in youth are sprains (injury to ligament) and strains (injury to tendon or muscle), which are usually attributable to a lack of qualified supervision,
    poor technique, and improper progression.
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  • A recent review of the literature suggests that untrained children can improve their strength by an average of 30 to 40% after 8 weeks of progressive resistance training
  • Information from the movement assessments will help the fitness
    professional design an individualized phase 1 Stabilization Endurance program. Progression into phases 2 through 5 should be decided on the basis of maturity level, dynamic postural control (flexibility and stability), and how they have responded to training up to this point


  • Arteriosclerosis
    A general term that refers to hardening (and loss of elasticity) of arteries
  • Atherosclerosis
     which is caused largely by poor lifestyle choices (smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, etc.), restricts blood flow as the result of plaque buildup within the walls of arteries and thus leads to increased resistance and blood pressure
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease
    A group of diseases in which blood vessels become restricted or blocked, typically as a result of
  • Individuals with blood pressure levels between 120/80 mm Hg and 139/89 mm Hg are considered prehypertensive and should be carefully monitored and referred to a physician if their blood pressure continues to rise or if they have other risk factors for heart disease.
  • All individuals regardless of their age who have a blood pressure reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher should be referred to a physician for further evaluation.
  • Some of the normal physiological and functional changes associated with aging include reductions
    in the following:
  • ■ Maximal attainable heart rate
  • ■ Cardiac output
  • ■ Muscle mass
  • ■ Balance
  • ■ Coordination (neuromuscular efficiency)
  • ■ Connective tissue elasticity
  • ■ Bone mineral density
  • Stages I and II will be appropriate levels of cardiorespiratory training for this population. However, older adults taking certain prescribed medications and those with other chronic health conditions must be carefully monitored and progressed slowly.
  • For adults taking prescription medication- Phase 1 of the OPT model will be applicable for this population and should be progressed slowly, with an emphasis on stabilization training (core, balance, and progression to standing resistance exercises) before moving on to phases 2 through 5.
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  • Obesity The condition of subcutaneous fat exceeding the amount of lean body mass.
  • Body mass index (BMI) is used to estimate healthy body weight ranges based on a
    person’s height.
  • BMI is defined as total body weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared. For example, a client with a body weight of 200 pounds (91 kg) and height of 70 inches (178 cm, or 3.16 m2) would have a BMI of 28.79 (91 kg/3.16 m2).
  • Because BMI does not actually measure body composition, other techniques such as skin-fold or circumference measurements may be performed to assist in developing realistic weight loss goals and to help provide feedback to clients.
  • A BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered within normal limits, 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or greater is obese.
  • For effective weight loss, obese clients should expend 200 to 300 kcal (calories) per exercise session, with a minimum weekly goal of 1,250 kcal of energy expenditure from combined physical activity and exercise. The initial exercise energy expenditure goal should be progressively increased to 2,000 kcal per week.
  • When Training for obesity- weight loss proprioceptively enriched environments are the best exercises to choose.
  • Core and balance training is also important for this population because they lack balance and walking speed
  • Phases 1 and 2 of the OPT model will be appropriate for the obese population. Personal trainers should ensure that the client is breathing correctly during resistance training exercises and avoids straining during exercise or squeezing exercise bars too tightly, which can cause an increase in blood pressure

Psychosocial Aspects of Working with Obese Clients

  • Proper exercise selections and positions are very important to the client’s sense of well-being. For example, machines are often not designed for obese individuals and may require a significant amount of mobility to get in and out. Dumbbells, cables, or exercise tubing exercises work quite well instead of machines.
  • it is recommended that obese clients engage in weight-supported exercise (such as cycling or swimming) to decrease orthopedic stress.
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  • Diabetes
    Chronic metabolic disorder, caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fat and protein.
  • Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body does not produce enough insulin (type 1) or the body cannot respond normally to the insulin that is made (type 2).
  • There are two primary forms of diabetes:
  • type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes) and type 2 (non–insulin-dependent diabetes). Although type 2 is referred to as non– insulin dependent diabetes, some individuals with type 2 diabetes cannot manage their blood glucose levels and do require additional insulin. Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated
    with an increase in childhood and adult-onset obesity.
  • Refer to table 16.7 and 16.8 for the best approaches on how to work with individual’s with diabetes
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  • Hypertension
    Consistently elevated arterial blood pressure, which, if sustained at a high enough level, is likely to induce cardiovascular or end-organ damage
  • Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common medical disorder in which arterial blood pressure remains abnormally high (resting systolic ≥140 or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg).
  • Some of the most common causes of hypertension include smoking, a diet high in fat (particularly saturated fat), and excess weight
  • Research has shown that exercise can have a modest impact on lowering elevated blood pressure by an average of 10 mm Hg for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure
  • It is important to monitor the body position of clients with hypertension at all times throughout an exercise training session. (because different positions affect blood pressure differently)
  • Supine or prone positions (especially when the head is lower in elevation than the heart) can often increase blood pressure, and, as such, these positions may be contraindicated.
  • Clients may use the full flexibility continuum; however, static and active stretching may be the easiest and safest.
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  • Resistance training should be performed in a seated or standing position as well. Phases 1 and 2 of the OPT model will be appropriate for this population, but should be progressed slowly.
  • The programs should be performed in a circuit-style or Peripheral Heart Action (PHA) training system
  • Valsalva Maneuver
    A maneuver in which a person tries to exhale forcibly with a closed glottis (windpipe) so that no air exits through the mouth or nose as, for example, in lifting a heavy weight. The Valsalva maneuver impedes the return of venous blood to the heart.

Coronary Heart Disease


  • Clients must be able to find and monitor their own pulse rate or use an accurate monitor to stay below their safe upper limit of exercise
  • Avoid heavy lifting and Valsalva maneuvers
  • Do not let client overgrip weights
  • Perform exercises in standing or seated position
  • Resistance training should be performed in a seated or standing position, as well. Phases 1 and 2 of the OPT model will be appropriate for this population.
  • The programs should be performed in a circuit-style or PHA training system
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  • Osteopenia
    A decrease in the calcification or density of bone as well as reduced bone mass.
  • Osteoporosis 
    Condition in which there is a decrease in bone mass and density as well as an increase in the space between bones, resulting in porosity and fragility.
  • Exercises should be progressed if possible toward free sitting(no support) or standing
  • Focus exercises on hips, thighs, back, and arms
  • Avoid excessive spinal loading on squat and leg press




  • Arthritis
    Chronic inflammation of the joints.
  • Osteoarthritis
    Arthritis in which cartilage becomes soft, frayed, or thins out, as a result of trauma or other conditions.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Arthritis primarily affecting connective tissues, in which there is a thickening of articular soft tissue,
    and extension of synovial tissue over articular cartilage
  • Personal trainers should also monitor the progress of clients with arthritis to assess the effects of the exercise program on joint pain.
  • Pain persisting for more than 1 hour after exercise is an indication that the exercise should be modifi ed or eliminated from the routine
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  • Cancer
    Any of various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues, may metastasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal and to cause death of the patient unless
    adequately treated
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  • Self- myofascial release is not recommended for clients receiving chemotherapy or radiation treatments.
  • Core and balance exercises will be essential for this population.

Exercise and Pregnancy

  • Avoid exercises in prone or supine position after 12 weeks
  • twisting motions of the torso, is not advised.
  • certain resistance exercises such as hip abduction and hip adduction machines are not advised
  • Avoid SMR on varicose veins and areas of swelling
  • Plyometric training not advised in second and third trimesters
  • The gradual growth of the fetus can alter the posture of pregnant women, making flexibility and core training important, particularly core-stabilization exercises to improve strength of the pelvic floor musculature.
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  •  Cardiorespiratory training should consist primarily of stage I and only enter stage II on a physician’s advice
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Chronic Lung Disease

  • Restrictive Lung Disease
    The condition of a fibrous lung tissue, which results in a decreased ability to expand the lungs.
  • Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease:
    The condition of altered airflow through the lungs, generally caused by airway obstruction as a result of mucus production
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Intermittent Claudication/Peripheral Arterial Disease

  • Intermittent claudication
    the name for the manifestation of the symptoms caused by peripheral arterial disease (PAD). (The term peripheral vascular disease is also commonly used to describe the activity-induced symptoms that characterize this disease.)
  • intermittent claudication is characterized by limping,
    lameness, or pain in the lower leg during mild exercise resulting from a decrease in blood supply (oxygen) to the lower extremities.
  • Peripheral arterial disease
    characterized by narrowing of the major arteries that are responsible for supplying blood to the lower extremities.
  • The primary limiting factor for exercise in the client with PAD is leg pain.
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NASM Chapter 15 Introduction to Exercise Modalities

Introduction to Resistance-Training Modalities 

  • the most common form of resistance used in strength-training programs is actual load in the form of free weights (Dumbbells, Barbells), body weight, and selectorized machine and cable apparatuses

Strength Training Machines

  • Most novice exercises lack resistance-training experience, strength training machines offer those new to exercise a safe and effective option.
  • Machine- in general, keep individual’s in a fixed plane of motion, which limits excessive ranges of motion that may result in unnecessary MSK stress.
  • Typically machines are considered a safer option than free weights.
  • Machines Can change the load quickly.
  • Machines are inferior to free weights for improving core stability and neuromuscular efficiency(proper movement patterns). Can limit effectiveness of exercise and create more stress on joints because not all machines are created to accommodate all body types.
  • Trainers should strive to progress individuals into more proprioceptively enriched environment while emphasizing multiple planes of motion (Use of free weights)

Free Weights

  • Free weights allow individuals to Perform exercises with full range of motion. Enhance motor learning and improve overall neuromuscular efficiency and performance.
  • More easily progressed. Allow individuals to perform multijoint exercises(complex movements).
  • Performing complex movements require more energy and enables individuals to expend more calories in a short period.
  • Although free weights can offer many benefits such as improving postural stability,strength, and muscle size and power, they can be potentially dangerous for novice exercisers until proper exercise technique (control and stability) is mastered.
  • many free-weight exercises,especially overhead lifts, often require a spotter to ensure proper exercise technique and safety
  • Can be effectively used in all phases(phase 1-5)


Cable Machines

  • Cable machines offer a variety of fitness and sports performance benefits because they allow similar freedom of movement as free weights, yet most exercises do not require a spotter.
  • Remember that joint motion is caused by muscles pulling on bones; muscles cannot actively push. Therefore each cable exercise must match the muscle’s natural line of pull. For example, when performing a biceps curl (elbow flexion), the cable should be positioned to offer resistance in a vertical
    motion against elbow flexion
  • Because cable machines can be used in a variety of fashions similar to free weights
    and by virtually all populations, they can be effectively used in all phases (Phases 1–5)
    of the OPT Model.
  • Cable machines are also an excellent option to challenge the core
    while having individuals perform exercises in a standing position versus seated as seen
    in many machine exercises.


  • Elastic resistance training is an inexpensive alternative to training with resistance. Various
    forms of elastic resistance training can be used to help improve proprioceptive
    demands, muscular endurance, and joint stabilization.
  • Elastic resistance training may not be ideal for improving maximal strength, but it has been shown to be very beneficial in helping to improve muscular strength and endurance for fitness and rehabilitative
  • Because elastic resistance is so versatile, health and fitness professionals frequently
    use elastic resistance with their clients in a variety of settings, including health clubs,
    boot camps, athletic performance centers, and rehabilitation clinics. In addition to its
    versatility, one of the greatest advantages of elastic resistance over free weights is its low
    cost and portability
  • Elastic resistance can be used in a variety of fashions, similar to cable machines,
    and by virtually all populations. They can be effectively used in Phases 1, 2, and 5 of
    the OPT Model.


  • Medicine balls can be used with a variety of populations as part of a program to
    increase muscular strength, endurance, and power, or in some cases, to help rehabilitate
    from injury
  • Personal training clients enjoy the versatility of medicine balls
    whereas athletes often benefit from the dynamic power opportunities afforded by their
    ability to be thrown and caught.
  • Most free-weight exercises performed in an explosive fashion (such as
    a speed bench press) require the individual to decelerate the load near the end of the
    movement (otherwise the weight will fl y through the air) and thus do not allow for full
    expression of power through the entire range of motion – Explosive medicine ball movements
    in conjunction with resistance training have been found effective in improving
    movement velocity and other factors influencing sports performance



  • The giyra, Russian for kettlebell, ranges from very low weight (4 kg), over 8 pounds, to competition style weight (64 kg), more than 140 pounds, and higher weights exist
  • A kettlebell differs from a dumbbell, barbell, or medicine ball in that the center of mass is away from the handle, which may require more strength and coordination, as well as increased recruitment from stabilizers and prime movers simultaneously during particular movements.
  • All variations allow the user to transform dynamic force reduction into powerful force production for
    a fun, challenging, and effective workout.
  • The benefits of kettlebell training are numerous and are applicable for individuals who wish to increase all aspects of health and fitness and for professional and Olympic athletes.
    Such benefits include:
  • ■ Enhanced athleticism, coordination, and balance
  • ■ Increased mental focus and physical stamina
  • ■ Increased oxygen uptake
  • ■ Increased total body conditioning as opposed to isolation training
  • ■ Recruitment of the posterior chain (calves, hamstring complex, gluteal muscles,
    spinal erectors)
  • ■ Increased core stability and muscular endurance
  • ■ Increased strength and power
  • ■ Improved grip strength
  • ■ Increased metabolic demands and caloric expenditure

Kettlebell Program Design Strategies

  • emphasis on the posterior chain, working from the ground up
    and keeping perfect form throughout each repetition, must be top priority. Practicing
    appropriate skills of gluteal and latissimus dorsi contraction along with abdominal
    hollowing and bracing must be continued and progressed carefully. Thus, one must be
    qualified to perform many kettlebell movements, and this modality may not be appropriate
    for all populations
  • as with all exercises, quality should always come before quantity
    or weight progression, and the five kinetic chain checkpoints should be monitored:
  • 1. Feet: approximately shoulders’ width apart and pointing straight ahead
  • 2. Knees: in line with the second and third toes (avoid valgus or varus motions)
  • 3. Hips: level with lumbar spine in a neutral position
  • 4. Shoulders: depressed and slightly retracted to activate scapulae stabilizers
  • 5. Head: cervical spine in a neutral position (chin tuck)
  • Kettlebells can be effectively integrated into the OPT Model, particularly Phases 1,
    2, and 5. For example, a kettlebell exercise that can be used in Phase 1 to improve stability
    is a renegade row (Figure 15.14). In Phase 2, you can superset the renegade row with
    a seated cable row (Figure 15.15). In Phase 5, you may superset a squat to overhead
    press with a kettlebell snatch (Figure 15.16).



  • Body weight exercises are exercises that do not require additional load such as dumbbells,
    barbells, or strength-training machines.
  • An individual’s own body weight along with gravity provides the resistance for the movement.
  • Common body weight strength exercises include
  • 1. push-ups
  • 2. pull-ups
  • 3. body weight squats
  • 4. sit-ups.
  • Body weight exercises are often used for core, balance, and plyometric training

Suspension Body-Weight Training

  • Suspension trainers are an innovative approach to body-weight fitness training that
    uses a system of ropes and webbing that allows the user to work against their own body
    weight while performing various exercises.
  • allow individuals to manipulate body position and stability to provide multiplanar,
    multijoint exercises in a proprioceptively enriched environment.
  • Benefits of Suspension Body-Weight Training
    Some of the physiologic benefi ts that come with suspension body-weight training
  • ■ Increased muscle activation
  • ■ Low compressive loads to the spine
  • ■ Increased performance
  • ■ Potential increase in caloric expenditure
  • ■ Improvements in cardiovascular fitness

Stability Balls

  • Swiss balls, allows increase in strength and stability of the core musculature when substituted for more stable surfaces such as exercise benches, chairs, and the floor.
  • The unstable base of support forces user to constantly adjust body position to subtle movements of the ball.
  • Can be dangerous if one does not possess good balance or control.
  • using a stability ball as a base of support is not recommended for individuals aiming to create maximal force during an exercise; Thus, stability ball training is not recommended during maximal lifts using heavy loads
    (85–100% of 1RM)
  • NASM-1

Bosu Balls

  • Stands for both sides up.
  • Ability to increase intensity of an exercise by decreasing the stability.
  • Increases neuromuscular activity when compared with standing on a stable surface.




NASM Chapter 14 Integrated Program Design and the Optimum Performance Training (OPT) Model

Intro to program design

  • At a minimum personal trainers should be able to answer the following questions
    • 1. what exercises are most appropriate for my client
    • 2. What exercises are contraindicated for my client
    • 3. How many exercises are appropriate
    • 4. Other questions regarding the appropriateness of rate, length and intensity of exercises.

Program Design

  • Program design
    A purposeful system or plan put together to help an individual achieve a goal.
  • Personal trainers need to understand the acute variables of the client.
  • How and why must physiologic, physical, and performance adaptations of stabilization, strength, and power take place.
  • Important- Tempo controls the amount of time that the muscle is active or producing tension in eccentric, isometric, and concentric contractions. NASM writes tempo as, a=eccentric, b=isometric, and c=concentric. Example: A medium tempo used for Hypertrophy Phase 3 of OPT model would be 2/0/2. Using biceps curl as an example, decelerate one,two down, no pause, one, two up, one, two down, one two up for two reps.

Acute Variables of Training

  • Acute Variables
    Important components that specify how each exercise is to be performed.- They determine the amount of stress placed on the body and, ultimately, what adaptations will occur.
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  • Repetition (AKA “Rep”)
    One complete movement of a single exercise. Most reps will involve three muscle actions: concentric, isometric, and eccentric.
  • A single rep includes the number of movements within a given time against the direction of resistance.
  • Also reps are a  means to count the number of movements performed in a given amount of time. They can be a means to count time under tension.
  • Each phase of OPT model has specific goals and therefore requires specific number of reps to achieve these goals. Number of reps performed in a given set is dependent on client’s work capacity, intensity of exercise, and specific phase of training.
  • Personal trainers must keep in mind that all acute variables are interdependent.
  • Research shows training in a specific rep range yields specific adaptations.
  • Muscular endurance and stabilization is best achieved by performing 12 to 20 reps at 50 to 70% 1RM
  • Hypertrophy best achieved using 6 to 12 reps at 75 to 85% 1RM
  • Maximal strength is achieved from 1 to 5 at 85 to 100% 1RM
  • Power adaptations require 1 to 10 reps at 30-45% 1RM
  • Typically the beginning phases of OPT consists of high rep schemes necessary to build proper connective tissue(tendons, ligaments) strength, stability, and muscular endurance.
  • A common mistake of advanced clients is to not use a planned training program that provides periods of low-rep training alternated with periods of high-rep training.
  • Higher intensities of training can only be sustained for a short period without running the risk of overtraining.
  • The use of the OPT model enables a personal trainer to use a systematic training approach to prevent overtraining and yield specific results


  • Set
    Group of consecutive repetitions.
  • The quantities of the other acute variables determine how many sets are appropriate for clients.
  • There is an inverse relationship between sets, reps, and intensity. Individual usually performs fewer sets when performing higher reps at a lower intensity(endurance adaptations) and more sets when performing lower reps at a higher intensity(strength and power adaptations).
  • Muscular endurance and stabilization, 1 to 3 sets, 12 to 20 reps 50 to 70% 1RM
  • Hypertrophy 3 to 5 sets, 6 to 12 reps, 75 to 85% 1RM
  • Maximal strength 4 to 6 sets, 1 to 5 reps, intensity of 85 to 100% 1RM
  • Power adaptations 3 to 6 sets, 1 to 10 reps, 30 to 45% 1RM

Training Intensity

  • Training Intensity
     One of the most important acute variables to consider when designing an integrated training program.
  • Training intensity is defined as an individual’s level of effort compared with their maximal effort
  • Muscular endurance and stabilization is best developed with intensity of 50 to 70% 1RM
  • Hypertrophy achieved with 75 to 85% 1RM
  • Maximal strength with 85 to 100% 1RM
  • Power with 30 to 45% 1RM
  • Training in an unstable environment also increases the training intensity because it requires greater motor unit recruitment, leads to greater energy expenditure per exercise.

Repetition Tempo

  • Repetition Tempo
    The speed with which each rep is performed. 
  • This is an Important variable that can be manipulated to achieve specific training objectives such as endurance, hypertrophy, strength, and power.
  • Because movement occurs at different velocities, to get most appropriate results from training, personal trainers must select appropriate speed of movement(slower tempo for endurance and faster tempo for power).
  • Muscular endurance and stabilization is best developed with slow rep tempo. One example would be 4 sec eccentric, 2 sec isometric, 1 sec concentric(4/2/1).
  • Hypertrophy is achieved at moderate tempo, one example would be 2 second eccentric, 0 isometric, and 2 second concentric.(2/0/2)
  • Maximal strength are best achieved with fast or explosive tempo.
  • Power adaptations best achieved with fast or explosive tempo that can be safely controlled.
  • OPT model places major emphasis on rep tempo because it has significant impact on functional outcome of the stressed tissues.
  • By emphasizing eccentric and isometric muscle actions at slower velocities during stabilization phases of training, more demand is placed on connective tissue(as well as stabilizing muscles) and better prepares nervous system for functional movements.

Rest Interval

  • Rest Interval
    The time taken to recuperate between sets. 
  • Studies show that this has a dramatic effect on the outcome of the training program.
  • Muscular endurance and stabilization 0 to 90 seconds rest.
  • Hypertrophy short rest periods between 0 and 60 secs.
  • Maximal strength 3 to 5 min rest.
  • Power 3 to 5 min rest.
  • Dynamic resistance training and isometric training significantly reduce ATP and PC supplies.
  • 20 to 30 seconds allows approx 50% recovery of ATP and PC
  • 40 secs 75% of ATP and PC
  • 60 secs 85 to 90% of ATP and PC
  • 3 mins approx 100% of ATP and PC
  • Rest interval between sets determines to what extent energy resources are replinished before next set. Shorter rest interval, less ATP and PC will be replenished, and less energy will be available.
  • For new clients this fatigue can lead to decreased neuromuscular control, force production, and stabilization by decreasing motor unit recruitment. Therefore inadequate rest intervals can decrease performance and could lead to altered movement patterns and even injury.
  • If rest periods are too long, potential effects include decreased neuromuscular activity and decreased body temp. If beginner client is then asked to perform intense bout of exercise, this could entail a potential increased risk of injury.
  • Individuals who are starting an exercise routine may respond better to longer rest periods until they adjust to demands of their program. Longer rest periods also help to ensure proper exercise technique. By reducing fatigue, client may be able to perform exercise with greater precision.

Training duration



  • Training programs that exceed 60-90 minutes (Excluding warm-up/cool-down) are associated with rapidly declining energy levels
  • The long length of training causes alterations in hormonal and immune system responses that can have a negative effect on a training program and raise the risk of minor infections, especially upper respiratory infections.

Exercise selection


  • The Human movement system is a highly adaptable system that readily adjusts o the imposed demands of training (Principle of specificity)
  • Exercises should therefore; be specific to training goals.
  • Exercises can be broken down into 3 different types on the basis of number of joints used, movements performs, and adaptation desired.
  • 1. Single joint: These exercises focus on isolating one major muscle group or joint (E.G. biceps curls, triceps pushdowns, calf raises)
  • 2. Multijoint: These exercises use involvement of two or three joints(E.G. squats, lunges, step-ups, chest presses).
  • Total body: These exercises include multiple joint movements(E.G. step-up balance to overhead press, squat to two arm press, barbell clean).
  • For example to develop optimal stability, traditional exercises can be progressed to a more unstable environment, such as standing up(two-leg, staggered-stance, and single-leg) or from a stable environment to an unstable environment(foam pad, stability ball, bosu ball).
  • Research has shown that exercises performed in unstable environments produce superior results for goal of stabilization and training the core stabilization muscles.

Periodization and the OPT Model (Planned Fitness Training)

  • Periodization is a systematic approach to program design that uses general adaptation syndrome and principle of specificity ti vary the amount and type of stress placed on the body to produce adaptation and prevent injury.
  •  Capture2
  • Understanding the importance of designing safe and effective programs using acute variable manipulation is important fundamental information for all personal trainers and ultimately their success in the profession.
  • Periodization involves two primary objectives – divide training into distinct periods(or phases), train different forms of strength in each period(or phase) to control volume of training and prevent injury
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Training Plan

  • Training Plan
    The specific outline, created by a fitness professional to meet a client’s goals, that details the form of training, length of time, future changes, and specific exercises to be performed.
  • Annual Plan
    Generalized training plan that spans 1 year to show when the client will progress between phases.
  • Monthly Plan
    Generalized training plan that spans 1 month and shows which phases will be required each day of each week.
  • Weekly Plan
    Training plan of specific workouts that spans 1 week and shows which exercises are required each day of the week.
  • Much of literature regarding periodization refers to dividing training program into specific cycles termed macrocycles, mesocycles, and microcycles.
  • Macrocycle is largest cycle and typically covers a yearlong period of training. Macrocycle is divided into mesocycles, which are typically 1 to 3 months in length.
  • Each mesocycle in turn is divided into microcycles, which are usually a week in length.
  • Periodization has been shown to be an effective form of program design for many fitness-related goals, and yet to date is not common practice among all personal trainers.
  • Periodization provides for the repeated use of different forms of training at specific times in an annual training program to elicit different adaptations in the body.
  • By intentionally cycling through different periods or phases of training, the acute variables are manipulated to adjust the volume of training.
  • By controlling the volume of training as a function of time in any given program, periodization allows for maximal levels of adaptation, while minimizing overtraining, which is primary benefit of periodization. Overtraining will lead to fatigue and eventual injury.

The OPT Model

  • There are 4 periods (Or phases) of training seen in a traditional periodization model
  • Capture4
  • The OPT model simplifies these phases into
  • 1.Stabilization
  • 2.Strength
  • 3.Power
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  • This phase is crucial for beginners
  • Stabilization is designed to prepare the bod for higher levels of training that may follow
  • It is necessary to cycle back through this level after periods of strength and power training to maintain a high degree of core and joint stability.
  • The focus of stabilization is
  • Capture8 Capture7
  • Stabilization is normally low intensity, high rep training.
  • There is an emphasis on core and joint stabilization (As opposed to increasing strength in the arms and the legs.
  • Extremely effective for increasing neuromuscular efficiency in healthy, elderly, and unhealthy populations.
  • Another important component is to help ensure activity-specific strength adaptations.

Stabilization Endurance Training (Phase 1)

  • This is designed to create optimal levels of stabilization strength, and postural control.
  • Primary focus when progressing in this phase is increasing proprioception of exercises, rather than just the load.
  • Focuses on:
  • 1.Increasing stability
  • 2.increasing muscular endurance
  • 3.increasing neuromuscular efficiency of the core musculature
  • 4.improving inter-muscular
  • 5. intramuscular coordination
  • It must be remembered that returning to this stage is important in order to allow for proper recovery and maintenance of high levels of stability
  • In addition to increasing proprioceptive demand, acute variables can be progressed by increasing the volume(sets, reps) and intensity(load, exercise selection, and planes of motion) and by decreasing the rest periods. Client in this category will generally stay in this phase for 4-week duration
  • NASM-Table-14.7


  • This is the second level of the OPT model, focuses on main adaptation of strength, includes strength endurance, hypertrophy, and maximal strength.
  • Designed to maintain stability while increasing amount of stress placed on the body for increased muscle size and strength.
  • This period of training is a necessary progression for anyone who desires to increase caloric expenditure, muscle size, muscle strength, and bone mineral density.
  • The main focus of strength level training is to:
  • 1.increase ability of core musculature to stabilize the pelvis and spine under heavier loads, through more complete ranges of motion.
  • 2.Increase load bearing capabilities of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
  • 3.Increase the volume of training.
  • 4.Increase metabolic demand by taxing the ATP-PC and glycolysis energy systems to induce cellular changes in muscle.
  • 5.Increase motor unit recruitment, frequency of motor unit recruitment, and motor unit synchronization(maximal strength)
  • The strength period of training in the OPT model consists of three phases:
  • Phase 2 (Strength endurance training),
  • Phase 3 (Hypertrophy training)
  • Phase 4 (maximal Strength Training)

Strength Endurance Training (Phase 2)

  • Capture9
  • Strength Endurance
    Hybrid form of training that promotes increased stabilization endurance, hypertrophy, and strength.
  • This form of training entails the use of superset techniques in which a more stable exercise(such as bench press) is immediately followed with a stabilization exercise with similar biomechanical motions(such as stability ball push-ups).
  • Thus, for every set of exercise/body part performed according to the acute variables, there are actually two exercises or sets being performed.
  • High amounts of volume can be generated in this phase of training.
  • Similar to phase 1, acute variables can be progressed by increasing proprioceptive demand, volume, sets, reps, and intensity, and by decreasing rest periods. Client will generally stay in this phase for 4-6 weeks.
  • NASM-Table-14.8
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Hypertrophy Training (Phase 3)

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  • Specific for the adaptation of maximal muscle growth (Size), focusing on high levels of volume with minimal rest periods to force cellular changes that result in an overall increase in muscle size
  • Acute variables can be progressed if client with goal of increasing lean body mass and general performance has properly progressed through phases 1 and 2 of OPT model.
  • Because goal of this phase is primarily hypertrophy, the fitness professional will want to increase volume and intensity of the program.
  • the client will stay in for 4 weeks before cycling back through phase 1 or 2 or progressing on to phase 4 or 5.
  • NASM-Table-14.9
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Maximal Strength Training (Phase 4)

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  • Maximal strength training phase focuses on increasing the load placed on tissues of the body.
  • Maximal intensity improves:
  • 1.recruitment of more motor units
  • 2.rate of force production
  • 3.motor unit synchronization
  • Maximal strength training has also been shown to help increase the benefits of power training used in Phase 5.
  • The goal of this phase is primarily maximal strength, trainer will want to increase load and volume.
  • Rest periods may need to be increased as client trains with heavier loads.
  • Client will stay in this phase for 4-week duration before cycling back through Phase 1 or 2 or progressing on to phase 5.
  • NASM-Figure-14.10


  • The third level of train, Power, is designed to increase the rate of force production(or speed of muscle contraction).
  • This form of training uses the adaptations of stabilization and strength acquired in previous phases of training and applies them with more realistic speeds and forces that the body will encounter in everyday life and in sports.
  • Not a common practice in the fitness environment, but has very viable and purposeful place in properly planned program.
  • Power is simply defined as force multiplied by velocity (P = F x V)
  • Increase in either force or velocity will produce an increase in power. Accomplished by increasing the speed at which you move a load, or increasing the load.
  • Combined effect is better rate of force production in daily activities and sporting events.
  • To develop optimal levels of power, individuals should train with heavy loads(85 to 100%) and light loads(30 to 45%) at high speeds.
  • Focus of power training is to increase the rate of force production by increasing the number of motor units activated, the synchrony between them, and the speed at which they are excited.

Power Training (Phase 5)

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  • Power training phase focuses on both high force and velocity to increase power- this is accomplished by combining a strength exercise with power exercise for each body part(such as barbell bench press superset with medicine ball chest pass).
  • The range of training intensities is important to stimulate different physiologic changes.
  • The 85 to 100% refers to intensity for traditional strength training exercises.
  • The 30 to 45% is used for “speed” exercises.
  • The goal of this phase is power, trainer will want to progress by increasing volume(sets), intensity(load), and velocity. Client will stay in this category for 4 week duration before cycling back through Phase 1 or 2.
  • NASM-Table-14.11

Applying the OPT Model for the Goal of Body Fat Reduction

  • The goal of reducing body fat requires clients to follow the simple principle of burning more calories than they consume. – The best way to increase calories burned is to move more.
  • Weight training provides potent means to burn calories when it is combined with cardiorespiratory training by maintaining or even increasing lean muscle tissue. More activity and greater amounts of lean body mass result in more calories burned during exercise and throughout the day.
  • The following program is a general representation of how the OPT model is used for clients with the goal of body fat reduction.
  • Because the goal does not include maximal strength or power- the client only needs to be cycled through first two phases of OPT model, with phase 3 as optional phase.
  • Cardiorespiratory training will be used in conjunction with the OPT model to help weight-loss clients burn calories and improve health.
  • Clients will progress through stages I, II, and III as their fitness levels improve.
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Applying OPT model for increasing lean body mass

  • With the goal of increased lean body mass, client can be cycled through first four phases of OPT model
  • Muscle hypertrophy can be defined as chronic enlargement of muscles.
  • To accomplish this goal, training programs need to be progressed with higher volumes(more sets, reps, and intensity) to force muscles to regenerate their cellular makeup and produce increased size.
  • Phase 4 is used to increase the strength capacity to allow the client to train with heavier weights in the future (This is only an optional addition to phase 3 workouts)
  • Applying OPT Model for Improving General Sports Performance

  • Goal of improving general sports performance requires client to increase overall proprioception, strength, and power output(rate of force production). Training will need to be progressed from stabilization through power phases of training.
  • Phases 1, 2, and 5 are training periods used in the same month, this is known as undulating periodization
  • Phase 1 and 2 are vital and will prepare connective tissues and muscles for higher demands of training to follow.
  • Without proper prep injury will be imminent.
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NASM Chapter 13 Resistance Training Concepts

General Adaptation Syndrome

  • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
    1. A syndrome in which the kinetic chain responds and adapts to imposed demands.
    2. A term used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress. (In this case the stress being placed on the body is the weight being lifted during training.)
  • “Eustress” is a term that is keyed to represent good stress (Such as that which is being placed on the body during training)
  • Strength training requires that the body be placed under some form of stress or a stessor which creates a need for response and adaptation.
  • There are three stages of response to stress:
    1. alarm reaction
    2. resistance development
    3. exhaustion




Alarm Reaction Stage

  • Alarm Reaction
    The first stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), the initial reaction to a stressor.
  • During alarm stage numerous physiologic responses occur, including increase in oxygen and blood supply as well as neural recruitment to the working muscles.
  • Initially, an individual’s body may be vey inefficient at responding to demands placed on it during resistance training, but over time applying principle of progressive overload, body increases its ability to meet demands being placed on it.
  • Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
    1.Pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity. (During this period of DOMS, any attempt at replicating or advancing the soreness-inducing exercise will be limited by factors contributing to soreness.
    2.This could be considered an alarm reaction.
    3. With exercises that result in DOMS further resistance work will be met with less and less onset soreness.

Resistance Development Stage

  • Resistance Development
    The second stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), when the body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor.
  • After repeated training sessions he Human Movement System will increase its capability to efficiently recruit muscle fibers and distribute oxygen and blood to proper areas of the body.
  • Personal trainers need to understand that it is improper to only manipulate the amount of weight the client uses when trying to understand the adaptation response. Discussed in chapter 14 will be more methods to increase resistance development.

Exhaustion Stage

  • Prolonged stress or intolerable amounts of stress can lead to exhaustion or distress.
  • Exhaustion
    prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the system.
  • When stressor is too much for any one of the physiologic systems to handle, it causes a breakdown or injury such as:
    1. Stress fractures
    2. Muscle strains
    3. Joint pain
    4. Emotional fatigue.
  • In turn many of these injuries can lead to the initiation of the cumulative injury cycle.
  • sports_diagram
  • Avoiding pitfalls of exhaustion stage is one of main reasons for using OPT model.
  • Periodization
    Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages.
  • Training-related injuries occur more often to connective tissue (Such as ligaments and tendons) than muscles because connective tissues lack blood supply.
  • Different tissues in the body (Muscle fibers versus connective tissue) each have their own adaptive potential to stress.
  • If resistance is continually increased with intention of stressing specific muscles or muscle groups to produce increase in size and strength, it can lead to injury of the muscle, joint, or connective tissue, especially if resistance is added too quickly or inadequate rest and recovery periods are not planned for.

Principle of Specificity

  • Principle of Specificity or Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands(SAID principle)
    Principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it – Example: If someone repeatedly lifts heavy weights, that person will produce higher levels of maximal strength. Conversly if a person repeatedly lifts lighter weights for many reps, that person will develop higher levels of muscular endurance.
  • Training programs should reflect desired outcomes.
  • REMEMBER: Type I slow twitch fibers are smaller in diameter, slower to produce maximal tension, and more resistant to fatigue. (More important for muscles that need to produce long-term contraction necessary for stabilization, endurance, and postural control)
  • REMEMBER: Type II are larger, fast twitch, quick to produce maximal tension, fatigue more quickly than type I. (Responsible for force and power such as sprint)
  • muscle-fiber-types-chart
  • The degree of adaptation that occurs during training is directly related to the mechanical, neuromuscular, and metabolic specificity of the training program.
  • To effectively achieve program goals for clients, trainers need to consistently evaluate the need to manipulate the exercise routine to meet actual training goals. The body can only adapt if it has a reason to adapt.
  • Mechanical Specificity
    The weight and movements placed on the body. 
  • To develop muscular endurance of legs requires light weights and high repetitions when performing leg-related exercises.
  • To develop maximal strength in the chest, heavy weights must be used during chest-related exercises.
  • Neuromuscular Specificity
    Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection.
  •  To develop higher levels of stability while pushing, chest exercises will need to be performed with controlled, unstable exercises, at slower speeds.
  • To develop strength, exercises should be performed in more stable environments with heavier loads to place more of an emphasis on the prime movers.
  • To develop higher levels of power, low-weight high-velocity contractions must be performed in a plyometric manner.
  • Metabolic Specificity
    Refers to the energy demand placed on the body.
  • To develop endurance, training will require prolonged bouts of exercise, with minimal rest between sets. Endurance training primarily uses aerobic pathways to supply energy to the body.
  • To develop maximal strength or power, training will require longer rest periods, so the intensity of each bout of exercise remains high. Energy will be supplied primarily via anaerobic pathways.
  • Trainers should remember that a client’s training program should be designed to meet the specific demands of their daily life and health and wellness goals.
  • Mechanically body burns more calories when movements are performed while standing versus seated or lying position.
  • From neuromuscular standpoint, body burns more calories when more muscles are being used for longer periods in controlled, unstable environments.
  • Metabolically, body burns more calories when rest periods are short to minimize full recuperation.

Progressive Adaptations from Resistance Training

  • The 5 main adaptations that occur are from resistance training are:
    1. Stabilization
    2. Muscular Endurance
    3. Hypertrophy
    4. Strength
    5. Power
  • Stabilization1. Stabilization is the human movement system’s ability to provide optimal dynamic joint support to maintain correct posture during all movements.
    2. Getting right muscles to fire, with right amount of force, in the proper plane of motion, at the right time. (This requires high levels of muscular endurance)
    3. Repeated training with controlled, unstable exercises increases the body’s ability to stabilize.
    4. If training is not performed with controlled unstable exercises, clients will not gain the same level of stability and may even worsen.
  • Muscular Endurance
    1. The ability to produce and maintain force production for prolonged periods of time.
    2. Improving muscular endurance is integral component of all fitness programs.
    3. Research has shown that resistance training protocols using high reps are the most effective way to improve muscular endurance as well and after an initial training effect in previously untrained individuals, multiple sets of periodized training may prove superior to single-set training for improving muscular endurance.
  • Muscular Hypertrophy
    1. Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension. Seen in resistance training.
    2. Visible signs of hypertrophy may not be apparent for many weeks(4-8 weeks), in an untrained client, process begins in the early stages of training, regardless of the intensity of training used.
    3. Resistance training protocols that use low to intermediate rep ranges with progressive overload lead to muscular hypertrophy.
    4. Structured progressive training programs use multiple sets to help increase musculoskeletal hypertrophy in both younger and older men and women alike.
    5. Progressive resistance training programs using moderate to low rep protocols with progressively higher loads will result in increased hypertrophy in older adults and men and women.
  • Strength
    1. Ability of neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external load. Degree of internal tension produced is the result of strength adaptations.
    2. Resistance training programs have traditionally focused on developing maximal strength in individual muscles, emphasizing one plane of motion, mainly sagittal.
    3. Because all muscles function eccentrially, isometrically, and concentrially on all three planes of motion at different speeds, training programs should be designed using a progressive approach that emphasizes the appropriate exercise selection, all muscle actions, and repetition tempos.
    4. Because muscle operates under the control of the CNS, strength needs to be thought of not as a function of muscle, but as a result of activating the neuromuscular system. Strength gains can occur rapidly in beginning clients and can increase with structured, progressive resistance training program.
    One factor in increased strength is an increase in number of motor units recruited, especially early in the training program.
    5. Strength is built on foundation of stabilization requiring muscles, tendons, and ligaments to be prepared for the load that will be required to increase strength beyond initial stages of training.
    6. Focused on increasing the load placed upon the tissues
    of the body, improving:
    1. Recruitment of more motor units
    2. Rate of Force production
    3. Motor unit synchronization
    4. Can help increase the benefits of forms of power
    training used in Phase 5.
  • Power
    1. Ability of neuromuscular system to produce the greatest force in the shortest time. Force multiplied by velocity.
    2. defined as force multiplied by velocity (P = F x V)
    3. Therefore increase in force or velocity will increase power, accomplished by either increasing the load (or force) or increasing speed with which you move the load (velocity)
    4. Train with both heavy loads (85 to 100%) and light loads (30 to 45%) at high speeds, focus is to increase rate of force production by increasing the # of motor units activated, the synchrony between them, and the speed at which they are excited.
    5. Power adaptations build on stabilization and strength adaptations and then apply them at more realistic speeds and forces seen in everyday life and sporting activities.
    6. Increase in either force or velocity will produce increase in power.
    7. Training for power can be achieved by increasing weight(force) or increasing the speed at which weight is moved(velocity).
Type Definition
Single-Set Performing one set of each exercise
Multiple-set Performing a multiple number of sets for each exercise
Pyramid Increasing (or decreasing) weight with each set
Superset Performing two set to failure, then removing a small percentage of the load and continuing with the set
Drop-sets Performing a series of exercises, one after the other, with minimal rest
Circuit training Performing a series of exercises, one after the other with minimal rest
Peripheral heart action A variation of circuit training that uses different exercises (upper and lower body) for each set through the circuit
Split-routine A routine that trains different body parts on separate days
Vertical loading Performing exercises on the OPT template one after the other, in a vertical manner down the template
Horizontal loading Performing all sets of an exercise (or body part) before moving on to the next exercise (or body part)
  • Single-Set System
    1. Uses 1 set per exercise.
    2. Usually recommended that single-set workouts be performed two times a week to promote sufficient development and maintenance of muscle mass.
    3. When reviewing physiology of how human movement system operates, notion that single set is not enough may not be true.
    4. Helps avoid synergistic dominance
    5. Most beginning clients could follow a single-set program to allow for proper adaptive responses
  • Multiple-Set System
    1. Consists of performing multiple numbers of sets of exercise.
    2. Appropriate for both novice and advanced clients.
    3. Superior to single set training for advanced clients.
  • Pyramid System
    1. Progressive or regressive step approach that either increases weight with each set or decreases weight with each set.
    2. In light-to-heavy system, individual typically performs 10 to 12 reps with light load and increases resistance for each following set, until individual can perform 1 to 2 reps, usually in 4 to 6 sets.
    3. This system can easily be used for workouts that involve only 2 to 4 sets or higher rep schemes(12 to 20 reps).
    4. The heavy to light system works in opposite direction.
  • Superset System
    1.Two exercises, performed in rapid succession.
    2, There are multiple variations of superset systems.
    3. First variation includes performing two exercises for same muscle group back to back. Example bench press immediately followed by push-ups.
    4. Other variations involves two exercises back to back that involve antagonist muscle groups.
    5. Involves 8-12 reps with no rest between sets or exercises.
    6. The greater number of exercises used, the greater degree of fatigue experienced and demands on muscular endurance.
  • Drop-Sets
    1. Allows client to continue a set past point at which it usually terminates.
    2. Performing set to failure, removing small percentage of load(5-20%), continuing with the set, completing a small number of reps(2-4), repeated several times(2-3 drops per set).
    3. Drop- sets are considered an advanced for of resistance training suitable for experienced lifters.
  • Circuit Training
    1. Series of exercises that an individual performs one after the other, minimal rest between each exercise. Low to moderate number of sets, moderate to high reps(8-20), short rest periods(15-60 secs).
    2. Circuit training is a great system for individual’s with limited time and for those who want to alter body composition.

Peripheral Heart Action System

  • This system is another variation of circuit training that alternates upper body, and lower body exercises through circuit
  • Distributes blood flow between upper and lower extremities potentially improving circulation.
  • The number of exercises varies with the program- but the number of reps per exercise is about 8-20.
  • NASM-Table-13.4
  • The Peripheral Heart Action System has 3 main adaptations
    1. The Split-Routine System
    ♦This involves breaking body up into parts to be trained on separate days.
    ♦Bodybuilders use mass dominant and strength athletes use split routine system. Numerous exercises on same day for same body part to bring optimal muscular hypertrophy.
    2. Vertical Loading
    ♦Alternating body parts trained from set to set, starting from upper extremity and moving to the lower extremity.
    ♦Resistance training that involves: total body exercise, chest, back, shoulders, biceps, triceps, legs
    ♦In vertically loaded workout client performs total body workout, then to chest, then to back, and so forth until all exercises have been completed- the client should then start back at full body.
    ♦Can be very beneficial in allowing for maximal recovery of each body part while minimizing amount of time wasted on rest. (if it takes 1 minute to perform each exercise, by the time the client returns to the 1st exercise 7 minutes have passed given adequate time for recovery.)
  • 3. Horizontal Loading
    ♦Performing all sets of exercise or body part before moving on to next exercise or body part.
    ♦This method is most commonly seen in health clubs
    ♦Appropriate for maximal strength and power training.
    ♦Horizontal loading drawback is that the system typically has a large amount of rest time.