NASM Chapter 18 Supplementation

Introduction to Supplementation

  • the traditional reason for use a dietary supplement is to provide the body with nutrients that might not be supplied adequately by a person’s typical diet
  • around the middle of the 20th century the use of dietary supplements was primarily in the form
    a one-a-day type of vitamin mineral supplement
  • today dietary supplements are much more than a low dosage vitamin mineral pill taken by a small percentage of the population


  • the popularity of dietary supplements has grown steadily in the United States
  • with sales in the supplement industry booming during the nineteen nineties
  • estimates put total sales at 3.3 billion dollars for nineteen ninety- growing to more than 100 billion in 2008
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Rationale For the Use of Dietary Supplements

  • Various studies have reported that people taking a multivitamin supplement experience a reduced risk
    of chronic disease development
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Dietary Reference Intakes

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  • Even essential nutrients are potentially toxic at some level of intake.
  • Vitamin D excess can result in the calcifi cation of blood vessels and eventually damage the function of the kidneys, heart, and lungs
  • Excessive intake of vitamin B6 can cause permanent damage to sensory nerves


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  • Proteins, carbs, fats expressed in grams
  • Vitamins, minerals, amino acids are expressed in milligram(mg) or microgram(mcg or ug)
  • IUs are expressed in international units.

Ergogenic Aids

  • Ergogenic means work generating.
  • An ergogenic aid is something that enhances athletic performance.
  • Creatine –synthesizes naturally in human body from amino acids methionine, glycine, and arginine.
  • In resting skeletal muscle, about two thirds of creatine exists in a phosphorylated form that can rapidly regenerate ATP to maintain high-intensity muscular efforts for up to about 10 seconds.
  • When creatine supplementation is combined with strength-training program, it has been shown to increase muscle mass, strength, and anaerobic performance.
  • Typical dose begins with 5 to 7 days at 20g per day (Loadingh phase) then often followed by 2 to 5g a day to sustain maximal muscle creatine levels.
  • Consuming creatine with carbs can enhance muscle uptake of creatine and potentially increase muscle levels above that achieved without concurrent carb consumption.
  • Creatine plays an essential role in normal brain function.
  • Creatine is not a banned substance and is not considered negative for health.


  • Caffeine – most widely used drug in the world.
  • Acts as stimulant, primarily affects central nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscles.
  • Ergogenic effects from caffeine, especially when tested on well-trained athletes performing endurance exercises(more than one hour) or high intensity short-duration exercise lasting about 5 minutes.
  • Does not appear to be ergogenic effect on sprint type efforts lasting 90 seconds or less.
  • Most effective ergogenic response observed when dose of caffeine is 3 to 6 mg per kg body weight,
  • Ingested 1 hour before exercise. For 155lb person this is 210 to 420mg of caffeine.
  • Possible adverse effects range from the well-known insomnia and nervousness to lesser known
    effects like nausea, rapid heart and breathing rates, convulsions, and increased urine production.
  • Other symptoms that have been reported include headache, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythm


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