NASM Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Human Movement Science

  • Recall that movement represents the integrated functioning of the 3 main systems within the human body; the nervous system (Central and peripheral), the skeletal (Articular) and the muscular system.
  • Biomechanics
    1. A study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body.
    2. The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
  • Anatomic Locations
    • Superior
      Positioned above a point of reference.
    • Inferior
      Positioned below a point of reference.
    • Proximal
      Positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference.
    • Distal
      Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.
    • Anterior (or Ventral)
      On the front of the body.
    • Posterior (Dorsal)
      On the back of the body.
    • Medial
      Positioned near the middle of the body.
    • Lateral
      Positioned toward the outside of the body.
    • Contralateral
      Positioned on the opposite side of the body.
    • Ipsilateral
      Positioned on the same side of the body.
    • NASM-Figure-5.4
    • Frontal Plane
      An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves. Movements include adduction/abduction

      • Abduction
        A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body.
      • Adduction
        Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body.
    • Sagittal Plane
      An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves. movements include Flexion/Extension

      • Flexion
        A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases.
      • Dorsiflexion
        When applied to the ankle, the ability to bend at the ankle, moving the front of the foot upward.
      • Extension
        A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases.
    • Transverse Plane (AKA Axial Plane)
      An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves. (Think loaf of bread or bread slices from head to feet) Movements in this plane include internal and external rotations AND horizontal adduction/abduction

      • Internal Rotation
        Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body.
      • External Rotation
        Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body.
      • Horizontal abduction
        Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position.
      • Horizontal adduction
        Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position.
    • NASM-table-5.1
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    • Scapular Movements 
        • Scapular Depression
          Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula.
        • Scapular Elevation
          Upward (superior) motion of the scapula.
        • Scapular Protraction
          Abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline.
        • Scapular Retraction
          Adduction of scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline.
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        • Muscle actions
          • Isotonic
            Force is produced and muscle tension developed. There are two types of isotonic contractions: (1) concentric and (2) eccentric.
          •  Concentric Muscle Action
            When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle. “Lifting phase” during a resistance training exercise
          • Eccentric Muscle Action
            When the contractile force is less than the resistive force. An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening. Usually refers to the muscles return to resting length
          • Isometric Muscle Action
            When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length. (In activities of daily lives and sports these actions are used to dynamically stabilize the boy)
          • Isokinetic Muscle Action
            When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion. (These actions require the use of expensive equipment that measures the amount of force generated by the muscle
        • contractions
        • Force
          An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object.
        • Length-Tension Relationship
          The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length. As it turns out, the natural resting length of our skeletal muscles maximizes the ability of the muscle to contract when stimulated. If the resting length is shorter or longer, contraction is compromised. The effect of resting fiber length on muscular contraction is referred to as the length-tension relationship
        • Force-Velocity Curve
          The force-velocity curve refers to the relationship of he muscle’s ability to produce tension at differing velocities. As the velocity of a concentric muscle action increases, its ability to produce force decreases.
        • Force-Couple
          Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint.
        • Sensorimotor Integration
          1. The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information to anticipate, select, and execute the proper motor response.
          2. The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement. (Made up collectively by: Proper length-tension relationships, Force-Couple Relationships, And Arthrokinematics.

      Common Force-Couples

      Muscles Movement
      internal and external obliques trunk rotation
      deltoid and rotator cuff shoulder abduction
      upper and lower trapezius fibers scapula upward rotation
    • ***Note: Most muscular motions use the lever system, which consists of a rigid ‘Bar” that pivots around a stationary pivot point or (Fulcrum)
    • Fulcrum = Pivot point
      • First-Class Levers
        Fulcrum is in the middle, acts much like a seesaw (Nodding the head is a perfect example of a First-Class Lever.) the top of the spinal column is the fulcrum.
      • Second-Class Levers
        Resistance is in the middle, (Fulcrum and effort on either side) much like a load in a wheelbarrow. The body acts as a second-class lever when one engages in a full-body push-up or calf raise.
      • Third-Class Levers
        The effort is places between the resistance and the fulcrum. The effort always travels a shorter distance and must be greater than the resistance. *Most limbs of the human body are operated as Third-Class Levers. (Example: The forearm: the fulcrum is the elbow- the effort is applied by the biceps muscles and the load is in the hand.
      • NASM-Figure-5.15-fulcrums-and-levers
      • Rotary Motion
        Movement of the bones around axis of the joints.
      • Torque
        1. The ability of any force to cause rotation around an axis.
        2. A force that produces rotation. Common unit of torque is the newton-meter or Nm.
        3. Torque is applied so that human’s can move their joints
      • ** The closer a weight is to the point of rotation (The joint), less torque will be able to be created- This translates to; the closer a weight is to the joint the more easily it will be able to be moved. *Understanding and applying this knowledge is important for trainers as a form of regression during a series of exercises.
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  • Remember: There are 3 types of movements: Eccentrically (decelerate force). Isometrically (To Stabilize). Concentrically (To accelerate force).
  • Motor Behavior
    1. The manner in which the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems interact to produce an observable mechanical response to the incoming sensory information from the internal and external environments.
    2. Motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli.
    3. This is collective study of Motor Control, Motor Learning, and Motor Development.

    • Motor Control
      1. The involved structures and mechanisms that the nervous system uses to gather sensory information and integrate it with previous experiences to produce a motor response.
      2. How the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response.
      3. Study of posture and movements with involved structures and mechanisms used by the Central Nervous System (CNS)  to assimilate and integrate information with previous experiences.
    • Motor Learning
      The integration of motor control processes with practice and experience that lead to relatively permanent changes in the capacity to produced skilled movements.
    • Motor Development
      The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan.
  • Muscle Synergies
    Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement.
  • Proprioception
    Proprioception uses information from the mechanoreceptors (Muscle spindle, Golgi Tendon Organ, and Joint Receptors) to provide information about Body position, Movement, and Sensation.
  • Current research displays that 80% of adult population experience low back pains, and an estimated 80,000-100,000 Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries occur annually- this means that many people are experiencing altered proprioception
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  • Sensorimotor Integration
    1. The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information to anticipate, select, and execute the proper motor response.
    2. The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement.
  • Common Muscle synergies
    • Squat = Quadriceps, Hamstring Complex, Gluteus Maximus
    • Shoulder Press = Deltoid, Rotator Cuff, Trapezius
    • rotator-cuff
    • Individuals who train using improper form will develop improper sensory information delivered to the CNS, leading to movement compensations and potential injury
    • The study of Motor Learning looks at how movements are learned and retained for future use.
    • Feedback
      1. The utilization of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to aid the kinetic chain in the development of permanent neural representations of motor patterns.
      2. The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning.
      3. There are 2 forms of feedback- Internal/External

      • Internal Feedback (Sensor Feedback) 
        The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment.
      • External Feedback
        Information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor, to supplement the internal environment. (examples include providing the client with positive or negative verbal feedback based on their performance of an exercise.)
    • Knowledge of performance is very important for both the trainer, and the client. A good knowledge of performance assists with explaining that a clients body may have been in the wrong position and why.
    • Excessive use of External Feedback may negatively impact the sensorimotor integration and motor learning, and ultimately the movement patterns- the client may become reliant of the trainer to constantly explain the workout and not learn how to successfully complete repetitions with proper form.

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