NASM Chapter 3 The Cardiorespiratory System

  • Cardiorespiratory System
    A system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
  • Cardiovascular System
    A system of the body composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.
  • Respiratory System
    A system of organs (the lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream.
  • Heart
    A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction. (Contained within the mediastinum) The adult heart is approx the size of an adult fist and weighs roughly 300G
  • Mediastinum
    The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest except the lungs.
  • 3 types of muscles- Cardiac, Smooth, Skeletal.
  • Cardiorespiratory System
    A system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. (Striated appearance) more tightly connected than skeletal and involuntary
  • Typical Resting Heart Rate– between 70-80 BPM
  • Sinoatrial (SA) Node
    A specialized area of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate; often termed the pacemaker for the heart. (Located in the Right Atrium)
  • Atrioventricular (AV) Node
    A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles. (Conducts impulses to the ventricles through Perkinje Fibers)
  • Right side of the heart = pulmonic side. Receives blood from body that is low in O2 and high in CO2 (deoxygenated) and pumps it into the lungs.
  • Atria– Located Superiorly, act as a reservoir.
  • image09
  • Stroke Volume (SV)
    The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction. (Measured as the different between the ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) and the end systolic volume (ESV) In a typical heart, the EDV is about 120 mL of blood and the ESV about 50 mL of blood. The different in these two volumes, 70 mL represents the stroke volume
  • Cardiac Output (Q)
    Heart rate X(Multiplied by) stroke volume, the overall performance of the heart. (volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute.
  • Blood
    Fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body, and also rids the body of waste products. The Average adult has between 4 and Liters (L) of blood in his/her body.
  • NASM-Table-3.1
  • Blood Vessels
    Network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body.
  • Arteries
    Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.
  • Arterioles
    Small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries.
  • Capillaries
    The smallest blood vessels, and the site of exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and the tissues.
  • Venules
    The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins.
  • Veins
    Vessels that transport blood from the capillaries toward the heart.
  • When blood leaves the heart it follows: Arteries ⇒ Arterioles ⇒ Capillaries ⇒ Venules ⇒ Veins.
  • types-of-blood-vessels
  • Aorta- The largest artery in the body, which carries blood away from the heart

Respiratory system

  • Respiratory System
    A system of organs (the lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream.
  • Respiratory Pump
    Is composed of skeletal structures (bones) and soft tissues (muscles) that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration.
  • Respiratory Passageway
    Collects the channeled air coming from the conducting passageway.
  • Inspiration
    The process of actively contracting the inspiratory muscles to move air into the body.
  • Expiration
    The process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body.
  • NASM-Table-3.2
  • image06
  • Bronchioles ⇒ Alveoli ⇒ Clusters of alveolar sacs This is where gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in and out of the bloodstream though a process known as Diffusion 
  • Diffusion
    The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body.
  • image08

Cardiorespiratory System

  • Cardiorespiratory System
    A system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
  • Oxygen Uptake
    The usage of oxygen by the body.
  • Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max)
    The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
  • Resting Oxygen Consumption- Approx 3.5 Ml of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute. (Typically termed 1 Metabolic equivalent or 1 MET)
  • The Equation for oxygen consumption is known as the Fick Equation
  • cc33d8f4bfe6d3d46028c3695dbd33df
  • To calculate Vo2Max- The Rockport Walk Test, Step Test and the YMCA Bike Protocol are used. (These are only considered submaximal tests and may lead to slight mis-calculations)
  • *** If a client presents an issue with abnormal breathing patterns- it is not your job to diagnose the situation or cause. Refer him/her immediately to a medical professional for assistance

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s