NASM Chapter 2 Basic Exercise Science

  • Human Movement System
    The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems. (These systems work in conjunction to allow the human body a way to move)
  • Nervous System
    A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body. (Made up of the Peripheral and Central nervous systems)

    • Peripheral Nervous System
      Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body. (NERVES ONLY)
    • Central Nervous System
      The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. (BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD ONLY NO NERVES)
  • 3 primary functions of the nervous system
    • 1: Sensory (Function of Nervous System)
      The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment.
    • 2: Integrative (Function of Nervous System)
      The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response.
    • 3: Motor (Function of Nervous System)
      The neuromuscular response to the sensory information.
    • The 3 functions work to Sense→Interpret→Respond
  • Anatomy of the Nervous System
    • Neuron
      The functional unit of the nervous system.
    • Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
      Respond to touch, light and other stimuli. Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord. (Muscle→Brain)
    • Interneurons
      Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another.
    • Motor (efferent) Neurons
      Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites. (Brain→Muscle)
    • **Exmple of how neurons work- Person touches a hot object (Sensory/Afferent) neurons send signal to the brain (Interneurons) Once the brain has interpreted information to relays the signal to the hand to move it away from the object (Motor/efferent)
  • CNS– Primary function is to coordinate the activity of all parts of the body.
  • PNS-Consists of the nerves that connect the CNS to the external environment. This is how the CNS receives sensory input.
  • The PNS has 2 subdivisions:
    1. Somatic Nervous System- Consists of nerves that serve the outer areas of the body and skeletal muscle. Largely responsible for Voluntary Control of Movement
    2. Autonomic Nervous System (Auto response system such as Heart) Broken into 2 more subdivisions (Sympathetic and Parasympathetic)
  • Because of how much the nervous system is responsible for, it is not as important for a personal trainer to understand the nervous system in extreme detail but more so, understand the basic responsibilities.
  • Mechanoreceptors
    Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues. (Respond to outside sources such as touch, pressure, stretching, sounds waves
  • Muscle Spindles
    Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change. (These help regulate contraction of muscle via the stretch stimulus reflex mechanism)
  • Golgi Tendon Organs
    Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change. (Activation of the GTO will cause muscle to relax, which prevents the muscle from excessive stress or possibility of injury)
  • Joint Receptors
    Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint.
  • Skeletal System
    • Skeletal System
      The body’s framework, composed of bones and joints.
    • 2 Classifications for the Skeleton
    • Axial Skeleton
      Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column.
    • Appendicular Skeleton
      Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.
    • i111_lhuman-skeletal-system-labeled-diagram
    • Osteoclasts
      A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue.
    • Osteoblasts
      A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation.
    • bone types_of_bones--0
    • Epiphysis
      The end of long bones, which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production. They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth.
    • Diaphysis
      The shaft portion of a long bone.
    • Epiphyseal Plates
      The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. It is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs.
    • NOTE** It is a good idea that if you have no prior knowledge of types of bones (I.E. Short, Long, Sesamoid, ETC) You should do a quick internet search to get the basics. Understanding in depth information about the classifications of bones is not entirely necessary.
    • Processes
      Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.
    • Depressions
      Flattened or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites.
    • vertebral_column1
    • Ligament
      Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement.
    • Arthrokinematics
      1. Joint motion. 2. The motions of joints in the body.
    • Joints
      Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs; also known as an articulation.
    • Synovial Joints
      Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body.
    • Nonsynovial Joints
      Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage.
    • Ball-and-Socket Joint
      Most-mobile joints that allow motion in all three planes. Examples would include the shoulder and hip.
    • Condyloid Joint
      A joint where the condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another bone to form the joint. An example would include the knee joint.
    • Gliding Joint
      A nonaxial joint that moves back and forth or side to side. Examples would include the carpals of the hand and the facet joints.
    • Hinge Joint
      A uniaxial joint that allows movement in one plane of motion. Examples would include the elbow and ankle.
    • Pivot Joint
      Allows movement in predominately the transverse plane; examples would include the atlantoaxial joint at the base of the skull and between the radioulnar joint
    • Saddle Joint
      One bone is shaped as a saddle, the other bone is shaped as the rider; the only example is in the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb.
    • Synarthrosis Joint
      A joint without any joint cavity and fibrous connective tissue. Examples would include the sutures of the skull and the symphysis pubis.

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